Study Guide Question #1 Rome – early empires Here is what I am hoping to do when I take write my response to this question. Definitely doesn’t matter how you do, just thought I would clarify for any one still a bit confused. My plan is to take the main examples provided for why each is successful and format it as follows: Roman Republic, Roman Empire, both, hit on other civilizations, misc. I’m planning to link examples that explain how other emperors didn’t do what Rome did correctly directly with my fact on what Rome did do correct.
As far as the second half of the question goes I am planning on taking what I have on each empire and try to make references to them during my arguments above. Tom L. was emphasizing Assyria during his explanation of this response. I listed some main points to hit on for every civilization below. Then with the remaining information I’m planning on just picking and choosing whatever fits. If you want me to send a list of my sources or an unrefined copy of my original notes let me know, it is kind of a cluster fuck but has some other background information.
What factors enabled republican and imperial Rome to establish its hegemony over the Mediterranean world for nearly a millennium when the earlier Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and Persian empires collapsed much more quickly? Your response should demonstrate your knowledge both of Rome’s imperial record [differentiating between the Republican and the Imperial eras] and those of its less successful predecessors [e. g. explain how the different empire builders acquired and attempted to retain their possessions by considering administrative, commercial, legal, military, and religious factors]. Republic Rome and Imperial Rome – How they developed hegemonies over Mediterranean world” Republic Rome: * Rome allowed the people of conquered city-states to join their army, causing it to grow in size and making it next to impossible to stop. * The military success of the Republic Rome has a direct correlation to the Republic’s success in politics and vice-versa. * Office officials are allowed one year in office, which is followed by a ten-year break. This technique prevented a single greater influence, which could lead to corruption. The Constitution of the Roman Republic was constantly changing. Much of which change was due to dispute between aristocracy and Patrician. Checks and balances are a vital tool used in Republican Rome. It allowed each branch to limit the others. Eliminating the chance of one person becoming dominant, a reoccurring process used within the Roman Republic not practiced in previous empires. Generally they were under control of a single monarch power, or a select group of individuals. * There are three branches that make up the Republic.
Each of which is derived from a different form of government. The first branch would be a democracy, also known as the legislative assemblies. This is where the public would go to vote. Next, you have the aristocracy, or the Senate. Their job was to advise the two consuls. The last branch within the Republic would be a monarchy, or the executive magistrates who were responsible for enforcing the law. At the top of the magistrate pecking order were the two Consuls, who could only veto one another. Once the Roman Empire was in place Consuls lost most of their authority. For five centuries the Roman Republic conquered the majority of the Mediterranean, giving them an exceptionally long period of time as the hegemony. This helped form stability within the state, something other empires and kingdoms lacked, such as Assyria and Babylon. * The fall of the Roman Republic was partially to the formation of an elite group within the community. Which took the Republic away from its original goal, which was to eliminate opportunity for a single group or individual to dominate. Consequently bringing civil war, leaving the Roman Republic venerable to enemies.
Imperial Rome: * The process of obtaining the Roman Empire was simplified because of civil war in the Roman Republic. This made the Republic an easy target. * His successor, Octavian (later named Augustus) had to devise a new political system capable of governing the entire Mediterranean. He then came up with the Roman Principate. * In order to maintain order and keep Rome’s provinces from forming armies to challenge him in Rome, Augustus secured the right to appoint all military leaders and the governors of the provinces. * By 100 AD Imperial Rome controlled 6. million km stretching the Mediterranean, allowing the power of Rome to flourish. * The conquered territories of Rome were ruled as military districts by a governor appointed by the senate Both: * Hegemonic sphere of influence for Rome involved less turmoil within the city-states then the sphere of influence surrounding Assyria, and Babylon. This was due to the approach that the Romans took during the conquering, or taking over, of civilizations. Preceding the assertion of dominance over a colony Rome would allow citizens to fall under their rule, and also had military opportunities. The extent of Rome and their success is directly related to the size and length of the empire. Although previous emperors conquered ample amounts of land as well, to do so in such a short period of time aided gave Rome a presence that aided in becoming the hegemon of the Mediterranean and much more area. * Taking place in modern day Iraq the Assyrians, Babylonians, and many other sub ordinate states engaged in constant battle. This prevented the Assyrians and Babylonians from having a stable political cycle.
Which as you can see with the successes of the Roman Republic, stability is vital within an empire. * Male citizens of Rome have the possibility to hold positions in military, as well as political office; those who excel intellectually can obtain said higher positions. * Rome held a citizen army, which differed from the previous civilizations who concentrated heavily on mercenaries. Mercenaries fight primarily for a salary, forming armies who may not be as faithful to their cause. * They also constructed roads linking Rome with their new possessions.
After Rome controlled land they would construct roads to expand the empire and unite it under a single empire. * Rome figured out early that the best way to project its power outward was to keep its new constituents happy. Respecting local cultures reduced the drain on military (i. e. fewer revolts to contend with), freeing it to continue expanding Rome’s sphere of control. They typically protected local customs, religions, etc. , keeping the locals pacified. * Its military might enabled the Roman Empire to protect civilizations from barbaric raids better than previous regimes.
Plus, the advanced Roman road system, and centralized currency/trade laws, enabled free trade throughout the empire, increasing the export markets and access to diverse and more affordable goods. Therefore, most conquered peoples enjoyed greater prosperity under Roman rule compared to their pre-Roman economic systems (or lack thereof). Explain how the different empire builders obtained and attempted to keep their possessions by considering administrative, commercial, legal, military, and religious factors Assyria * Multiple Rulers * Constant turmoil * Constant civilian up rise Tried to bring everyone under one rule/religion * Brutal/bloody civilization 1. Administrative a. Early empires divided in to sections and took census b. Twin brothers fight for kingship and a general steps in 2. Commercial c. River (Tigris) – Exports/imports – or lack there of d. Periods of tranquility were not long – unstable fortune 3. Legal e. General steps in ; is soon conquered by Babylon and Medes f. Monarchy (king, predecessor, etc. ) 4. Military g. Subjugated to stronger kingdoms h. Warriors – conquest – death – etc. i.
Numerous battles with Babylon j. Civil war weakened empire allowing Babylon to conquer 5. Religious factors k. Henotheism (one god) l. Converted to Christianity approx. 1-5 centuries AD Babylon * Bring everyone under one rule/couldn’t make own decisions * Not stable politically/militarily 1. Administrative a. 6th ruler (Hammurabi) gives hegemony over Mesopotamia – gives stability b. Has code – moral obligations – fear of God – destroy evil doers 2. Commercial c. Tigris and Euphrates river valley d. Bridged Africa to Asia minor – spread of technology – trade e.
Constant intercourse with west — trade 3. Legal f. 70 years supreme — came to an end from Persians 4. Military g. Numerous battles with Assyria – many other kingdoms/city-states h. Well disciplined 5. Religious factors i. Henotheism (one god) j. Symbol of corrupt power and wealth — crusades Persia * Offered more opportunity for civilians and conquered civilizations. 1. Administrative a. Cyrus the Great founded multi-state empire 2. Commercial b. Cyrus made postal system through out empire c. Darius the Great forms silver/gold coinage system – revolutionizing economy . Legal d. Darius formed tax system 4. Military e. Cyrus — The Immortals – 10,000 perfect army f. Needed to maintain peace – as well as void foreign threat – professional army g. Establish a citizenship with protection 5. Religious factors h. Zoroastrianism (single Creator — pure good) i. Reached all corners of empire by 5th century j. Bible claims Cyrus the Great released captive Jews from Assyria and Babylon Egypt 1. Administrative a. Pharaoh – complete political & religious control b. Collected taxes c. Stood for gods on Earth 2. Commercial d.
Concentrated on lower part of Nile River e. Secure kingdoms with relative periods of instability (intermediate periods) in between f. Flood from living in Nile Plane – used for irrigation of crops – fueled society 3. Legal g. Ethnically ; culturally unified 4. Military h. Adapted to enemy technology – extremely powerful military i. After conquering a civilization – said civilization must address pharaoh as their ruler 5. Religious factors j. Polytheism (belief in many deities) k. Gods and goddesses known to be animals l. Immortality Reidar Composano (425) 359-5420