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– the West Struggles and Eastern Empires Flourish (1300-1500)

World Civilizations Journal Tamera Mosier May 18, 2010 Chapter One – The West Struggles and Eastern Empires Flourish (1300-1500) Economics and Social Misery Summary The population explosion made it hard to feed all. More cropland was cultivated, but that meant less grazing land, which reduced livestock. Then poor weather depleted crops further, bringing famine. The Black plague came and continued to spread taking millions of lives. The desperate people blamed the Jews and others for plague, resulting in thousands being killed. After the plague there was a shortage of labor which brought on restricted and unfair practices in labor.

This resulted in a revolt. Imperial Papacy Besieged The position of pope lost prestige, the people’s confidence and moral authority in their division. People were split by controversy as disputed papal elections brought several popes in power, creating the Great Schism. People were disenchanted and wanted reform. More Destruction: One Hundred Year War England and France went to war for two reasons 1) Economics and 2) Land. The English had superior weapons and the French had numbers. The English defeated the French and wanted claim to land. The French came back and drove England out.

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Henry V got allies and defeated France only to be defeated after Joan of Arc rallied the French, and the throne was taken back. Responses to the Disruption of Medieval. The response to these changes was, people found new ways, ideas and direction. New views on faith and reason emerged. Scientific observation became of interest. And intellectuals started looking at things in a new way. Empires in the East New empires in the east dominated the next several hundred years. The Mongols expanded their Eastern Universalism from China to Moscow, with a diversity of people and religions.

The Ottoman Empire brought Turks with Muslim influence. Another rising empire was Russia with Ivan I (moneybags) funding growth and overthrowing the Mongolian rule. (2008) Chapter One Questions Why did the popes take so long to condemn the actions of the massacre of the Jews? “By the fall of 134 the rumor was current that these deaths were due to an international conspiracy of Jewry to poison Christendom. The condemnation came much later possibly because the conspiracy was started by a religious order, one of the conspirators was Rabbi Peyret, who had his headquarters in Chambery, Savoy.

His rumors resulted in thousands of Jews being burned” (1938). Why was the psychological impact more important than the loss of life? The loss of life had an impact on the region. This resulted in a loss of laborers, an economic loss and social changes. “The tremendous emotional shock of watching a ravaging plague that caused people to die quickly and quite painfully that probably killed friends and family members was psychologically traumatizing. This created a state of shock and depression and sometimes even panic that spread across more than an entire continent.

The psychological impact affected the social and cultural aspects of the following Renaissance period” (1991). Chapter Two – A New Spirit in the West: The Renaissance (1300-1640) A New Spirit Emerges: Individualism, Realism, and Activism Renaissance was a rebirth characterized by the return to sources of learning and standards of beauty. The new focus on education, values of individualism, activism, humanism and realism, brought about a unique state-of-mind and accelerated change. The Renaissance celebrated humans and their achievements putting an optimistic faith in what we could become.

The Politics of Individual Effort Rulers introduced new politics and stimulated new spirit. Competition spurred individual effort. Republics and principalities were established governing ways and were challenged for their corruptness. Wealth from trade stemmed peace and aided growth in art and diplomacy. Individualism as Self-Interest: Life During Renaissance A defined social structure caused great disparity between the rich and poor, fueling crime and a growing intolerance. New development brought plusses: vigorous economics; focus on family. It brought minuses: revived slavery practices; left children behind.

An Age of Talent and Beauty: Renaissance Culture and Science Art through paintings, architecture, sculpture, and theatre brought a new focus and perspectives on humanity, and they were valued. The passion for direct observation brought scientific accomplishments. There were focuses on astrology, alchemy, mathematics and anatomy. Leonardo De Vinci, the “Renaissance Man”, showed through his multi-talents how diversified and accomplished human beings could be. Renaissance of the New Monarchies of the North: 1453-1640 The Renaissance spread from Italy, to France, to England and further. Each added their personality to the movement.

Under this influence humanist literature flourished, educational opportunities broadened, prosperity increased, social mobility prevailed and intellectual expansion took place. Transformation was embraced individually and collectively. (2008) Chapter Two Questions What other innovations, like the technology of the printing press, spread the spirit of the Renaissance? All technology spurred the spirit of the renaissance as the curiosity and exploration theories were new and exciting. “Along with the printing press several inventions were created including the clock, the submarine, and telescopic lenses (2010).

What other institutions of learning evolved beside the Platonic Academy, during this period? “Scholars traveled to the University of Padua in Italy and it became the scientific center of Europe. The scientific attitude in Padua relied on experimentation and objectivity and that attitude provided the basis for further advances in science in other parts of Europe” (2010). Chapter 3 – “Alone before God”: Religious Reform and Warfare (1500-1648) The Clash of the Dynasties 1515-1555 France tried for alliance with England against Rome, but England aligned with Rome. The Turks again move toward Europe.

New weapons and larger armies dictated new strategies for the infantry dominated forces. These wars hurt the economics within their lands by raising inflation, ruined harvest, and creating a multitude of poor. Austria and France also battled for land and power, ending in a peace treaty with separation of and breakdown of empires. Tide of Religious Reform People started to question the Catholic ways. They also started seeking God directly through prayer, eliminating the need for a mediator, which the Catholics insisted on. People wanted reform in the church and criticized the Church for its corruptness.

Many new Christian churches were born including Luther’s revolt, the Protestants, Switzerland’s revolt, Baptist, and Calvinism. England passed acts taking away the pope’s power. Europe ended this century with separate views and diversified Christianity. The Catholic Reformation Other Catholics, besides Luther, had wanted reform. Ferdinand and Isabella created a Catholic monarch, where they kicked Jews out of the country, harmed the Muslims, and had no humanism till after Ferdinand’s death. Others sects were established like the Jesuits, which emphasized spiritual discipline.

Catholics met at the Council of Trent and decided that you needed faith and good works to get to heaven. They based their decisions on tradition and scripture. Catholics in defending their faith warred with the Turks and Protestants. Europe Erupts Again: A Century of Religious Warfare: 1559-1648 Bloody civil wars took place in France over religion for over thirty-five years, until King Henry III died. In revolt to control, the Netherlands fought back and were killed in the “Council of Blood”, but evidentially won. The Thirty Year War came about by the project to eliminate Protestants.

It went from religious to political till both laid down their arms. Life After The Reformation In the life after the reformation, societies changed their values. Marriage changed to a mutual love not just duty. The Christian humanist emphasized education and valued literacy, work, and charitable giving. They went through a period of a fear of witches, where Catholics and Protestants both persecuted witches. The movement of the Protestant Reformation left permanent changes on the European society through ideas of marriage, individualism, hard work and conscience. (2008) Chapter Three Questions

How exactly did the “Complutensian Polyglot Bible” come to be and was it the first Greek version? As early as 1502 Cardinal Ximenes began to prepare a Greek Bible, which he also accompanied with Hebrew and Latin. Though Eramus’ commissioned version went to press six years earlier than Cardinal Ximes it was of poor quality because of the rush to put it together. The version of Greek that Eramus wrote became the version that was translated into English (2010). What was the life of women like after the reformation? Reformation brought freedom of religion but not freedom for individuals such as women.

The reformers called for literacy and basic education for girls but it was a long slow road. Women we not allowed to preach. “Nevertheless, while women remained excluded from office, the priesthood of all believers took them beyond a total dependence on a male priestly and mediation of any approach to God and their adoption as children of God” (2002). Chapter 4 – Faith, Fortune, & Fame: European Expansion (1450-1700) The World Imagined & Discovered As the Renaissance ideas spread, the reformation created new values and the Europeans ventured to where they had not gone.

The world changed as it became a global environment. Europeans lusted for the East’s commodities of silks and spices. The opportunity for fame and fortune motivated many exploration journeys. Ships and navigation equipment were improved to aid the excursions. Portuguese explorer brought back treasures from India. Men traveled to the new world and eventually around the world. Confrontation of Cultures Civilizations were created and were centered within their agricultural projects. Empire building was prevalent in the Mexican and Aztec societies. Cortez’s exploration conquered the Aztecs and Incas.

The need for labor in the new world initiated slavery. The relationship with the American Indian slowly started to deteriorate as cultural misunderstandings took place. The World Market, Commercial Revolution A commercial revolution was introduced but growth was stunted by the disasters of the fourteenth century till the middle of the sixteenth century. When this reopened it shaped the path of production and trade. This world trading brought aspects of a commercial revolution, along with capitalism. Western government tried to control this trade which brought economic regulations.

Banking was refined to transform exchanges. World Transformation Through this trade and global relationships European culture spread around the world. And populations mixed as people settled in new societies. Europe was also transformed with changes from around the world. These included new diseases, foods and stimulants. Chapter Four Questions What are some other facts about banking in the new world? “In the early organization of banks in North America, government permission was needed to open. The Bank of the United States, a central bank was opened in 1791. The first loans were short term loans of 30 to 60 days.

Many of the loans issued were for land and farm equipment” (2007). How many voyages did Da Gama make to India? Da Gama completed two trips to India and died on the third trip. Even though he was celebrated because of his accomplishments of going around the tip of Africa, he was not a man of honor. His first trip he stole away with goods and on his second trip he went armed and killed many Muslims who threatened his trading (1997). Chapter Five – The Struggle for Survival and Sovereignty: Europe’s Social and Political Order (1600-1715) Stresses in Traditional Society

The stress on the common European could be noted by the population decrease. War had created devastation, poverty, and depression. The government issued new taxes and the pheasants revolted. Governments and armies grew putting more burden on the laborers. Royal Absolutism in France Kings trying to gain more power, control, and resources, exemplified their hierarchical system which included royal absolutism. Law and order had broke down but Henry IV took actions for restoration. Richelieu initiated France into the thirty year war and France climbed to an elevated position in Europe, but at much cost.

The Struggle for Sovereignty in Eastern Europe The East struggled to adjust more than the West. Fredrick Williams took control of a weak government, Brandenburg-Prussia, and increased its army and territory. Austria’s, Leopold I, aligned himself with the Catholic Church to survive and overcome the Turks. Russia, another monarchy, grew strong and prominent in the sixteenth century. Peter the Great brought many western ways to Russia and built it up and expanded it into Asia. In Poland, the nobles, took over the monarch but weakened the state which became submissive to surrounding states. The Triumph of Constitutionalism

England was different in that it had a situation where the nobles and monarchs had joint power, so monarchs didn’t prevail and the constitutions ruled. New money in merchants and individuals started a shift in a lack of respect for the nobles. Protestants became wealthy through commerce and revitalized their efforts. James I, insulted many with his lack of understanding the diverse religions. He started Jamestown, in the new world in hope of recouping his financial losses. Charles I alienated his parliament, then when he needed them to raise funds for war, they put stipulations on it, gaining back some of the Parliament power.

England broke out in civil war where even the women fought and Charles I was captured, and then executed. The monarch was restored by Charles II, at the request of parliament. After a revolution and many other monarchs, parliament again ruled. Chapter Five Questions What other events took place during Queen Anne’s reign? * The War of the Spanish Succession took place where England fought against France and Spain. * Act of Union united England and Scotland. * Treaty of Utrecht was signed ending the war. (2010) What was the image of the Ottoman Empire? “The Ottoman legend is that they lived-for-war.

This is a misleading stereotype. Every governor in this empire was a general; every policeman was a janissary; every mountain had its guards; every road had its military destination. The ottoman state was thoroughly martial. Their militarism aspect could be found in any state in early modern Europe” (2002). References Goffman, D. , “The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe”, New approaches to European History, 2002, retrieved from http://www. assets. cambridge. org , May 12, 2010 Inventions of the Renaissance, 2010, retrieved from http://www. mec. k12tn. et , May 11, 2010 Jacob Marcus, “The Jew in the Medieval World: A Sourcebook”, 315-179, (New York: JPS, 1938), 43-48, retrieved from http://www. fordom. edu/halshall/jewish, May 13, 2009. Kenyan, F. , “The Story of the Bible”, March 22, 2010, retrieved from http://www. worldinvisable. com/library, May 11, 2010. “Lutheran School on Theology and Mission”, Window on life – women after the reformation, 2002, retrieved from http://www. thefreelibrary. com , May 11, 2010 Mejiek, M. , “Vasco Da Gama Arrives in India”, 1999, retrieved from http://wwwthenagain. nfo, May 12, 2010. Sherman, D. , “Western Civilization: Images & Interpretations”, 1991, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA Salisbury, J. , & Sherman, D. , “The West in the World”, 2008, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA “Renaissance Art and Science”, 2010, retrieved from http://www. all-about-the-renaissance- faires. com, May 12, 2010. “Royal Family History”, Queen Anne, 2010, retrieved from http://wwwbritroyals. com/kings , May 12, 2010. “The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency”, A brief history of banking, 2007, retrieved From http://www. historyworld. net, May 12, 2009.


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