It has also been acknowledged that the simulator exercises have not focused on real emergencies at sea. The research presented here makes special references to the Leonardo Safety On Sea (SO) project (2005-07), which updated and harmonious the Maritime Education and Training (MET) programmed for deck and engineering off Ceres in several EX. countries. The SO project identified deed defied sciences in maritime education and training, identifying training in emergency situations at sea an area for serious consideration.
MADDER addresses this defied science specific calla to avoid collisions, grounding and other dangerous situations and what needs to take place once these situations arise. The scenarios are being developed by carefully studying past maritime accident reports focusing on the most critical/dangerous emergency. Prior to creating the scenarios, a survey was conducted to identify the reason of he emergency situations and to identify the most frequent occurred emergencies.
What is novel in MADDER is that trainees will 364 undertake exercises in both a full mission simulator and/or in an e-learning platform, where the scenarios are based on past maritime accidents which took place in different locations of the world. MADDER is funded by the E and the core partners are: Maritime Institute of William Parents (IAMBI), Centre for Factories of the Future (CUFF), DUVET Institute of Maritime Studies (DUVET), Lithuanian Maritime Academy (ALMA), University of Stretchable (SC)), Spinnaker d. . O. And IDES. Key words: Maritime Training and Education, Safety at sea, accident investigation, e-learning 1. Introduction There has not been a systematic attempt to develop accident scenarios for the training of cadets/officers working at sea and in ports to prevent emergency situations. IMO (Gratin, AAA) places a great deal of emphasis on human factors and has developed measures to avoid human errors and prevent accidents.
This has been supported in a research report (Gratin and Gratin, Bibb) stating that the accidents are usually due to human error, poor design or equipment failure or a combination of these factors. It has also been acknowledged that simulator exercises are not often based on real accidents and hence training of cadets and officers would benefit from a set of scenarios focusing on emergency situations and how they can be avoided in future. The MADDER project primarily concerned accidents and near misses which were reviewed in the Maritime Accident Investigation Branch (IAMBI) during the years 2004-201 1 .
The research included a questionnaire which was developed and distributed to seafarers in the maritime sector to identify the most frequent occurred emergency situations and the prevailing conditions MADDER proposal, 2009-11 The outcome of the review of the accidents reports and papers coupled with results of the questionnaire were studied and carefully analyses. The outcome was used in creating the scenarios for application in bridge full mission simulators in the development of the online e-learning platform.
The Maritime Safety Committee (MS) of International Maritime Organization (IMO) as noted by Gratin (AAA) has repeatedly promoted the idea of safety first time and novel use of simulators in training of seafarers. It is believed that the majority of human errors could have been prevented by adopting a ore human oriented approach. Appropriate training is crucial in this respect. In the same report (Gratin AAA) it was also reported that training is the most efficient way of preventing/reducing accidents at sea.
The MADDER project specially aims to remedy issues relating to human error at sea. Several accident reports have been used as a basis to review and develop scenarios on various emergency situations based on real cases where an accident has taken place, or an incident has been reported as well as scenarios for a whole range of near-misses which were not considered in the past. This is expected to improve safety at sea and ports by developing a series Of realistic scenarios based on real life situations biz. Involving real accidents. The MADDER will enable ship crews and those working in ports to prevent emergencies and to respond to emergency situations when they occur. MADDER scenarios are being designed for full mission simulators supplemented by e-learning exercises for those who do not have or have limited access to these simulators. This paper commences with a brief introduction to MADDER project and its main aims and objectives followed by explanations on how the scenarios ere planned and are being developed.
The outcome of the analyses of questionnaire and how the results were used to develop the scenarios is described. Special references are made to the MADDER e-learning platform. 365 2. Scenario development Prior to the MADDER project, research had been carried out into the results of hundreds of accident and incident reports by the partnership. In the scope of the MADDER project, several accidents covering the main causes of accidents were also carefully studied when reviewing IAMBI database.
The methodology developed to identify the causes of the accidents was a fault tree (FAT) approach which was used to identify the most critical and relevant accidents cases/ situations, etc. (Gratin, 2006, Bibb). A survey using a questionnaire Was conducted to obtain feedback from the field to complement the outcome of the investigations and reviewing of accidents at sea. The previous technical papers, IAMBI accident reports and the survey provided a complementary triangulation in deciding what scenarios to develop which could cover the main causes of emergencies at sea and how to manage emergencies when they happen.
What is unique about MADDER project is that he scenarios relating to near-misses which are often ignored are taken into consideration. It is reported that there are generally about 100 plus incidents and 10 to 100 near misses to every accident (Bea, 1999). It is inevitable that a cause of a near-miss at sea or port could be the cause of a huge disaster in the future. The method used to identify, collect, analyses and collate the knowledge of accidents in the development of training material for seafarers was as novel as the method applied to develop the scenarios.
In the near future the intention of this project is to complement the existing knowledge n previous accidents gathered as part of the MADDER project with other data on accidents and incidents such as those reported in Gratin (2008) as well as by Turn and Gratin (2007) and break them into several categories and prepare a knowledge-base of the selected scenarios, and train the trainers as well as officers working on board vessels (including trainee cadets) using advanced bridge as well as integrated and full-mission simulators.
Prior to Bridge training the trainers will undertake training in the application of MADDER e-learning platform that consists of simulation of real accidents and the on-line tests. The e-learning platform can be used independently for those with no or limited access to bridge simulators. This project is primarily a preventive approach to understand the causes Of accidents and incidents as well as near-misses and use this understanding in the development of learning materials in the form of scenarios which would make learning and teaching more effective and at the same time more interesting.
In this project it is also intended to prepare a whole range of scenarios simulating actual accidents, incidents and near-misses focusing on emergency situations and incorporate these in the existing MET programmed n the partner countries and later Europe-wide. A training programmer on the scenarios is also being prepared for seafarers working at sea and in ports. The intention is that the scenarios would lead to identifications of the causes for accidents and incidents as well as narratives including grounding.
The identified causes could lead to avoidance of similar accidents in the future. This type of training is expected to enhance the awareness of dangerous situations significantly and help in identifying what actions should be taken to avoid them; and manage them when they occur. 3. Results analyses of iambi database An accident database was carefully reviewed to identify the most critical and or dangerous cases to use in developing scenarios so that the intended training could be effective.