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According to Silverman

The training agenda was designed based on Salesman’s (2006) Active Training, in order to engage the participants in their learning process. The use of immediate earning exercises is intended to draw the participants into the process of guided note taking during the brain-friendly lectures. Through headlines and graphical associations, organized information is presented that is more easily retained. Role-playing scenarios solidify newly acquired information, and action planning provides an opportunity to prepare the participants for on the-job application.

These techniques were chosen because they provide the best option for active involvement of the participants, and thus, their attainment and retention of skill. Keywords: Walbridge, personal training, active training, human capital Walbridge Clubs is a fitness management company that was founded in 1 983 in Denver, Colorado (Walbridge Clubs, 2014). Through the operation of 19 athletic clubs nationwide, Walbridge has established a vision that is focused on building positive relationships with members (Walbridge Clubs, 2014). All associates’ daily behaviors, whether serving members or educating themselves toward improved business practices, are guided by this Vision and Wellspring’s Core Values to have a daily mission of improving lives through fitness, wellness, sports and fun” (Walbridge Clubs, About Walbridge, 2014, p. 1). Given their vision of improving business practices, Walbridge began assessing their sales staffs ability to sell personal training (P T) packages to Walbridge members. Noticing that the APT sales were nonexistent, Walbridge proposed the creation of a training program for sales staff that would address this issue.

The development of human capital within Walbridge was designed to complement the introductory sales training the sales staff received, provide knowledge about the motivations of members joining the club, the advantages to investing in a personal trainer, ND the standard sales approach Walbridge has established. Training is one of the most vital functions within a company, as it acknowledges the importance Of investing in human capital in order to achieve strategic goals (Shanghai, Bonkers & Shanghai, 2013).

In the world of developing human capital in the workplace, Diversionary and Reassert (2014) state, “effective training can be gauged by the capacity of trainees to apply knowledge, skills, and abilities gained in training to their work environment and maintain them overtime in their job context” (p. 1420). Thus, the training itself is one piece f the puzzle; application of the skills acquired once participants return to work is another piece of this puzzle.

According to Silverman (2006), “an active approach to training requires a variety of strategies that promote all six processes-?hearing, seeing, questioning, discussing, doing, and teaching’ (p. 21). Adults learn in myriad ways, and many different learners in one classroom can present countless teaching issues. Understanding and applying the appropriate teaching methods for every unique training setting requires an understanding of how adults learn in the first place.

In the age Of sat food and technology, humans are accustomed to faster, better, and smarter; anything other than this philosophy often loses an audience rather rapidly. Assessing how the brain receives and processes information is the beginning to the training and development puzzle, and the brain prefers an active role in the learning process (Silverman, 2006). Training Needs Analysis Training is a very important aspect of any organization; yet often the decision to conduct training is made without analyzing what needs to be trained and whether training is the actual issue.

To ensure that the training is truly taught or its intended purpose requires conducting training needs analysis. Objectifications. Com defines a training needs analysis as an “assessment of the training requirements of a target group in terms of (1) number of trainees, (2) their educational and professional background, (3) their present level of competence, and (4) the desired behavior or skill level acquired at the completion of training’ (Training needs analysis, 2014).

Walbridge Analysis Given that our training had to be developed within eight weeks, our team referred to Salesman’s (2006) Advantages and Disadvantages of Nine Basic Needs Assessment Techniques in order to quickly gather information (up. 32-34). Due to our time and cost restraints, we had to exclude several of the nine basic needs such as observation, questionnaires, and group discussion (Silverman, 2006). We conducted interviews and key consultations via teleconferences with the Walbridge corporate office staff located in Denver, which included Steve Date, Kelly Bartlett, and Amy Thompson.

Additionally, we gathered data during lectures with Jerry Rose, our instructor, from October 21 through December 9, 2014, at Webster University. Mr.. Rose is also a personal trainer for Walbridge Clubs’ Del Norte Sports and Wellness location, and was able to speak directly to the Walbridge topic. Utilizing these assessment interviews and key consultations we were able to collect the necessary data to proceed. Applying the guidance from Silverman (2006), it was determined that Walbridge Clubs had a training issue regarding their sales staff.

We were able to confirm the problem and began actively working on our collective solution. We determined that the number of trainees would vary at each club location, but would generally be 5-6 participants. These artisans would vary in their educational levels, but would have already been given introductory training through Walbridge. The participants would be expected to know some of the information presented in training, but otherwise would have a low to moderate level of competence regarding the new information.

The desired training outcome would be related to selling APT packages to Walbridge members, a topic not previously addressed with sales staff per SE. Following our training needs analysis we embarked upon task analysis of the training issue. Task Analysis Completing a task analysis is a crucial part of developing an active raining program. Essentially, the purpose of task analysis is to figure out the Five Vs., who, what, when, where, and why, Of the training program in order to develop a complete understanding of what needs to be taught (LLC .

S. Army Training Support Center, n. D. ). Task analysis should be conducted in the beginning of the development process since it will help fill knowledge gaps and answer any unanswered questions. Being prepared, writing down questions, and affirming information given is key to successful task analysis. Job Task Criteria During the initial interview with the Walbridge Corporate personnel a task analysis was conducted. Silverman (2006) states that task analysis should answer (p. 6) the percentage of job incumbents who actually perform the task; the percentage of total work time that job incumbents spend on the task; how critical the task is; the amount of delay that can be tolerated between the times when the need for performance of the task becomes evident and the time when actual performance must begin; the frequency with which the task is performed; the difficulty or complexity of the task; the probability of deficient performance of the task by job incumbents; how non the task must be performed after a person is assigned to a job that involves it.

Walbridge job task criteria. The Walbridge answers to Salesman’s (2006) job task criteria demonstrate the importance of this training to the Walbridge Corporation. Since our program was designed for the sales staff, 100% of the members receiving the training will perform the task. Minus paperwork and follow-up administrative duties, 100% of the time will be making membership and APT sales. At the present time no one in the sales staff has made a APT sale during the membership process, which negatively impacts Walbridge revenue (S. Date, personal communication, October 28, 2014).

The goals of our training program should be met immediately and the sales staff should implement what was taught as soon as the training is received, on an hourly basis, or as often as potential members continue to want to join Walbridge. Making a sale can be difficult for Some, but our training program establishes an easy to follow process regarding how to make a APT sale. On-the-job application of the training will be very likely; it is safe to say that all sales staff will be able to identify personal goals of potential members and connect those goals with APT.

The Walbridge sales staff should apply this training immediately during the time members sign up. An effective task analysis will help produce the goals and objectives of a training program. It will also build an understanding of what needs to happen and how it should happen. The U. S. Army Training Support Center (n. D. ) said it best, “Too often task analysis is not performed and the design of instruction is at risk of not identifying true learning outcomes” (p. Training Objectives Goals are broad, general statements about the plans or purposes of education that present long-range intended outcomes, and objectives are reef, clear statements that describe the desired learning outcomes Of instruction (The Learning Management Corporation, n. D. ). An effective training program will ideally describe these broad learning outcomes and concepts that participants are expected to assimilate, providing the framework for determining the more specific educational objectives of a program (The Learning Management Corporation, n. D. ).

Goals and objectives are similar in that they both describe the intended purposes and expected outcomes of training activities and establish a foundation for assessment. Learning Goals Per S. Date (2014), the goals of the Walbridge training program are to increase the knowledge base of its sales staff regarding the benefits of APT, develop their skills in effectively selling APT plans, and ultimately, to increase Wellspring’s overall sales of APT packages. According to Silverman (2006), “Learning-goal statements articulate the basic purpose and outcomes you want to achieve” (p. 2). Our team utilized both cognitive and behavioral learning in the establishment of the program’s goals. Cognitive learning. Cognitive learning, according to Silverman (2006), “includes the acquisition of information and concepts related to the course content,” and will be the type of learning best suited for the stated objectives of this course (p. 43). Teaching the participants of this training program the most common reasons members join a health club is an example of cognitive learning. Behavioral learning.

Silverman (2006) defines behavioral learning as ‘the development of competence in the actual performance of procedures, operations, methods, and techniques” (p. 43). Based on this perspective, role-playing scenarios are an example of this type of learning. Defining objectives. The next course of action in the development of an active training program is to “break those goals down into specific training objectives (or outcomes)” (Silverman, 2006, p. 44). The objectives for our program were determined within the context of the course of action that the sales staff takes during an initial sales tour with members in Walbridge Clubs.

We then presented these objectives, as per Silverman (2006), “in a form that will make them effective tools for managing, monitoring, and evaluating the training” (p. 46). Walbridge objectives. After this training program, participants should understand the following: 1 . The four common reasons why potential members join Walbridge. 2. The eleven reasons for investing in APT. A. The four most common reasons for investing in APT. 3. The Walbridge standard sales approach for increasing APT sales. The first objective is providing sales staff with the understanding of why Walbridge members choose health clubs in the first place.

Secondly, our team examined the knowledge base of sales staff in regard to educating members about the advantages of APT. J. Rose (2014) identified eleven reasons for investing in P T, and this served as our knowledge base for participants. Further discussion with Walbridge management allowed us to spotlight the four most common reasons for investing in p T out of this larger list of eleven, and these are a) motivation; b) accountability; c) companionship; and d) education (S. Date, personal communication, October 28, 2014). Walbridge believes that people are more likely to spend money when they are already spending (S.

Date, personal communication, October 28, 2014). As a result, the standard sales approach for increasing p T sales focuses on the following six key areas: 1. Make your first deal first. 2. Identify motivation. . Insert facts. 4. Establish path to success. 5. Communicate the add-on. 6. Potential responses of members. The expectation is that the sales staff will learn to recognize what motivates members, develop the skills to read and respond to members’ interest or lack thereof in APT sales, provide information for the future, and will never jeopardize membership sales for the sake of selling APT services.

Establishment of these goals and objectives is what essentially “drives the training design” (Silverman, 2006, p. 41 Training Design The foundation of any training program is its design. Training design consists of the training objective, method, and format (Silverman, 2006). The objective focuses on ‘ Ft. ;vat is to be accomplished” (Silverman, 2006, p. 155). The details of how this objective should be realized are the method, and format is the environment in which the training will take place (Silverman, 2006).

Active Learning in Adults Silverman (2006), states, “Active training includes strategies to get participants active from the start through activities that build teamwork and that immediately cause the participants to think about the subject matter” (p. 33). Through the process of keeping participants involved, minds active, and using a variety of learning techniques, active training enlivens the classroom (Silverman, 2006). One Wisped article defines androgyny as “teaching strategies focused on adults” (“Androgyny”, n. . , Para. 1). This theory differentiates adult learning from child based learning, or pedagogy (“Androgyny”, n. D. , Para. 3). From this perspective, adults have acquired life experiences which children lack; yet the eagerness to learn is also not as predominant in an adult as compared to a child. Adults learn best by actively applying information to current real world needs. It is important for adult participants to understand ‘WV’ they are being trained and “how” the training benefits them. Immediate learning involvement.

Silverman (2006) points to the importance of an immediate learning involvement for “creating initial interest in the training topic” (p. 56). When creating the opening exercise of test questions, we considered the exercise needed to be relevant to the training content (Silverman, 2006). Each student will become actively engaged by providing them with an opportunity to answer the test questions, hereby creating a motivation to learn. As an additional motivation to learn, the participants will be advised that the training will result in the acquisition of incentive payments for selling APT packages.

The opening questions will also demonstrate the knowledge gap between what the participants currently know and the material that will be presented, which is known as on the spot assessment (Silverman, 2006). Silverman (2006) refers to on the spot assessment as the process of “learning about the attitudes, knowledge, and experience of the participants” (p. 58). A preview of the content of the raining program will be presented to the participants to jump start their learning (Silverman, 2006). The preview of content presents information that is to be continuously reinforced throughout the training. Brain-friendly lectures.

We have chosen to present the material in a brain-friendly lecture format (Silverman, 2006). Silverman (2006) writes that “Lecturing is the most efficient and lowest-cost method of transmitting information in a classroom setting’ (p. 71). While the use of a Powering presentation will stimulate the visual learners, and the lecture itself will stimulate the auditory learner, we ere careful to incorporate active participation during this program as well. Silverman (2006) illuminates the fact that lecturing is fundamentally a passive learning technique; thus he encourages the active involvement of participants.

Guided note taking actively involves participants by encouraging them to put the material being presented into their own words (Silverman, 2006). The instructor will ask the participants to use the guide to expand their learning, and this guide will also serve as a reference tool when the participants return to work. The program will be presented in a sequential manner that is aligned with the order in which sales staff would interact with a potential club member, and prior to delving into each new area of content a preparatory slide will be introduced in order to build learner interest.

Memory aids. Active listening acronyms (mnemonics), known as headlines, will be used to assist the participants in retention of important material (Silverman, 2006). These headlines will also be helpful when the participants return to work and malls apply the knowledge, as they are easy to recall. For example, in order to assist participants with remembering the four reasons embers join Walbridge, we created a headline based on the first letter of each of the four words. General health, rehabilitation, weight loss, and performance thus became GRIP.

We transformed that headline into a phrase, “Get a GRIP,” to make it simple to recall. Throughout the presentation the instructor will have an opportunity to “spot challenge” the participants to determine the level at which they are retaining the material (Silverman, 2006, p. 85). The spot challenges can be conducted using the jigsaw method of learning, in which a piece of information is requested from en participant at a time, and additional pieces are asked from other participants (Silverman, 2006).

This method prevents dominant participants from commanding the training, and places the other participants on notice that they might be asked to provide answers. As another form of active involvement, participants benefit greatly from this exchange of information. By the time the lecture is completed, the participants will have a clear understanding of the training material, and they will be ready to practice what they have learned. Role-playing. Experiential learning involves learning from experience (Silverman, 2006).

Role-playing allows participants to execute their newly acquired skills and have an opportunity to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses (Silverman, 2006). With regard to training employees, Darwinian and Reassert (2014) state, “Role playing had its origin in psychotherapy, but it has found wide use in the industry for improving sales, leadership, and interviewing skills” (p. 1420). Two participants at a time will be chosen to role play, and the remaining participants will be asked to contribute as observers.

The observers will be even feedback forms, which are designed not only to reinforce the material presented earlier, but also provide a quick reference for evaluating the role players’ skills. With the aid of feedback forms, observers will be able to identify whether the role players understood and utilized the training. Final review. A final review will be conducted utilizing Powering slides, during which the participants will be asked to recall the headlines previously presented.

The instructor will use the jigsaw method, only asking one question at a time from each individual participant, which allows for the icing together of information from the entire group (Silverman, 2006). A graphical association method will also be used to help teach in the recall of training information, as the Powering slides include pictures associated with important material. For example, a piggy bank full of money with the word “Health” written on it is graphically associated with one of the eleven reasons members use a personal trainer, which is “Invest in yourself’.

Thus when the piggy bank is later presented by itself, participants should recall “Invest in yourself”. This review can be accomplished using competition teen the participants to keep the training interesting and the participants engaged. Diversionary and Reassert (2014) Suggest a secondary training location for training participants. A classroom setting outside of Walbridge locations would be ideal because “the environment can be designed or controlled to minimize distractions and create a climate conducive for learners” (Diversionary and Reassert, 2014, p. 419). Since the anticipated size of the class is approximately five partial pants, the training can be conducted in a small conference room or classroom. This training can also e expanded to larger class sizes, but it is recommended the student to instructor ratio not exceed 15 to 1. A computer and projector will be required to support the Powering presentation. Implementation Plan Once a training program has been designed, the next step is implementing the program.

Implementation is often seen as “program integrity” and is a crucial function in connecting a program to its outcomes (Dryden and Witt, 2012). Dryden and Witt (2012) state, “Evaluations too Often focus solely on program outcomes without considering how the program and its components actually produced the observed results” (Para. ). “How’ a program is executed is the basis of implementation, beginning at the level of management involvement, proceeding into in-house testing, training instructors, and ongoing program modifications.

Involving Management Presenting the program to the company is known as task force of design (Needle, 201 1). The task force of design should be composed of management. “Management should make time available to participate and review the new training program” (Needle, 2011). It is important for management to be involved on this task force because the training program an be discussed and critiqued prior to launching. It is critical for management to confirm that the objectives are clearly defined, and that the material can be connected to past work experience and training of the participants.

Management involvement also helps to ensure that the training is later assimilated into the work product of participants. “Many training efforts never get off the ground because they are not integrated into the workplace” (Silverman, 2006, p. 295). Poorly executed training programs can result in company setbacks, loss of profits, and lost manpower. Beta Testing In-house pilot testing is then conducted. This step permits the company to assess information errors or flaws that may exist in the design, provide necessary feedback, and allow for modification of the training design.

Teaching the training program to a beta class in order to evaluate its effectiveness is part of this phase. Beta testing “serves as a way of exposing a new product,” assists in gaining valuable feedback from Beta class students, and allows for the modification of the program before it is taught to the actual participants (Beta testing www. Paragon. Com). Training the Instructors Finally, it is also necessary to train the instructors on how the finalized training design is to be taught.

According to Silverman (2006) when training the instructors, it is important to ensure that they understand “a) Objectives Of the training program; b) the course outline; c) the kinds of training activities utilized in the program; d) course material; e) suggestions for facilitating further practice and application of skills” (p. 223). Once management has evaluated the training program, beta testing is completed, the training design is modified, and the instructors have been trained, the final product is ready or the actual participants.

Walbridge implementation plan. Given the basis for an effective implementation, our team would suggest that Walbridge management be apprised of the details of the training program and its goals and objectives for sales staff. This provides sales staff with the ongoing support of management, which helps facilitate on-the-job transfer and improved skill performance. Additionally, Walbridge management will be able to address pertinent issues or errors found in the training program at this stage, so that any editing can be done.

We would recommend a beta lass be taught this program following the editing presented by management, so that any additional issues can be modified. Once the beta class has been taught and a final product is created, we would recommend that the training objectives, course outline, lesson plan, training activities, and all materials be provided to instructors. If there are any further matters that arise during this phase, we would have an opportunity to adjust the program prior to its presentation to Walbridge sales staff. Evaluation Plan No training program is ever truly finished.

There is always room for valuation, modification, and improvement in the content, delivery, and goals of training. One of the most important steps in evaluation is determining “how participants have been impacted by the training’ (Silverman, 2006, p. 315). The results that follow a training program can help establish if it should be modified. “Evaluation determines the effect of training at individual, departmental, and organizational levels” (Diversionary and Reassert, 2014, p. 1420). Interim Feedback Silverman (2006), points to the value of observing and evaluating the efficacy of a program while it is taking place.

Observing participants, questioning them during the training and asking them to complete surveys in order to assess the value of the training are important functions in the evaluation process (Silverman, 2006). Final Assessment Silverman (2006) believes that any training program should examine four levels of inquiry in order to be meticulous, which include: Reaction, which is cost effective and simple, and gauges participants’ satisfaction with and perspective on the training easily. Learning, which analyzes the “attitudes, knowledge, and skills they acquired” (Silverman, 2006, p. 320).

Tests, role- playing assessments, interviews, and project assignments address participant learning, but are more labor intensive evaluations (Silverman, 2006). Behavior, which addresses participants’ performance after they have returned to work following a training program. Asking participants how much they have applied their training after returning to work, observing participants performing their work tasks after training, or interviewing their supervisors to assess participants’ job performance are examples of behavior evaluation. It takes considerable time and money to obtain information for his level of evaluation.

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