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Keywords: Superimposing Nucleation; Energy; Instant freezing Freeze! The Effect of Super Cooling Water on Nucleation There are many different types of aqueous solutions, such as water, but even water can be broken down into specific types. Those types can include rain, tap, salt, purified, and even bottled water. All of these solutions are very similar, but one difference that could be proposed between them is the rate of nucleation when the different solutions are super cooled.

According to one study, “Superimposing occurs when a liquid does not freeze although its temperature is below its freezing point” (Gladdened & Hussein, 2013). Many experiments have been conducted on this area of study, but their experiments were limited because distilled water was the only type of aqueous solution that was used. One research study has been conducted by Emir Gladdened and Raze Hussein, in which they placed distilled water at different initial temperatures into a freezer to see if nucleation or instant freezing would occur.

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The primary goal of their experiment was to explain “the difference between superimposing of initially hot water and initially cold water (Gladdened & Hussein, 2013). Another study conducted at the University of Colorado also takes a look at the nucleation of supermodel, stilled water when it is introduced to energy. Some studies, like the study by S. C. Moss, have even went so far as to use specially treated tubes and tested whether the tube length would affect nucleation. These two studies focused on the same topic, but set out to support or reject two, entirely different hypotheses.

By the end of this experiment, the objective is to observe and analyze my own data to see if the results obtained are similar or different than past studies. Instead of using just distilled water, however, the researcher will use rain, tap, and purified bottled water to test the rates of collection of supermodel water. The different types of water used throughout this experiment and the temperature of those aqueous solutions are the independent variables. Since the tests all involved different types of water, there was not a control in my experiment.

The dependent variable of my experiment is the crystals that formed throughout the water due to nucleation or instant freezing. One additional study focused mainly on causing nucleation to occur in distilled water and documented the process by taking photos. This study stated that “in order to cause crystallization in the stilled water, an abrupt input of energy needs to be imposed on the water (Mounted, Leper, et al, 2011). My experiment did not use distilled water, but this test would be the same for the tap, bottled, and rain water.

To test this theory, the researcher introduced the water to a source of energy. The individual dropped a marble or fishing weight in the different aqueous solutions in order to see if the samples would produce similar or different results in comparison to my source?s demonstrations. Hypothesis and Purpose The purpose of this experiment was to see whether or not a source of energy loud produce the same results of rapid crystallization throughout the different supermodel water solutions.

All of the past studies have not focused their attention towards comparing the rate of nucleation in distilled water to other types. The researcher changed the samples in the experiment so that the individual could see the difference in the nucleation rates of, not only distilled water, but purified, bottled water, tap water, and rain. Another purpose of this experiment is to learn about the phenomenon of nucleation from the different test trials. This will help the individual make the other trials more accurate so the information can be used again and help another researchers advance their own studies.

My hypothesis for this experiment was that if a marble or a fishing weight was dropped in the different supermodel aqueous solutions, then nucleation would occur very similarly in each solution. Methods and Materials There are many items that will be needed to conduct this research experiment. They include plastic cups, different types of aqueous solutions of your choice, a temperature probe, a large bowl, towels, salt, ice, scissors, and oenology rap. In each of the three trials, the researcher filled the individual plastic cups halfway with the different types of as osseous solution.

After securing the temperature probe inside the cups and wrapping it with Reynolds wrap, the cups were placed into the center of a large bowl. Then, ice was placed two or three times higher than the water inside the plastic cups. Salt was sprinkled on top of the ice, but the amounts varied due to adding ice to the bowl during the individual tests. Finally, the researcher took notes and kept up with the temperature of the water for each trial. Once the water reached negative one or below, the cup was removed or the Reynolds wrap was cut, using scissors, in a circle to expose the water inside.

In order to test to see if nucleation would occur, two different items, a glass marble and a fishing weight, were dropped in the aqueous solutions throughout this experiment to introduce the supermodel water to energy. Results Test One The first test that was conducted in my research experiment included the tap water. The plastic cup was filled halfway full of tap water, wrapped with Reynolds wrap around it, and placed into the large bowl. Ice was added and then the individual proceeded to observe and record the temperature readings.

After an hour and twenty minutes total, the tap water reached negative one degrees Celsius, as shown in Table 1 . Then, the researcher tested the nucleation by dropping the glass marble into the water. The glass marble did not induce rapid crystallization. Test Two The second test included the purified bottled water. The researcher did the same steps as before in test one. As shown in Figure 2, the temperature stayed at one degrees Celsius for three readings. The temperature, in the ND, went all the way down to negative two degrees Celsius. When the cup was taken out, however, the water had already began to freeze.

The researcher went ahead and dropped the fishing weight into the cup just to see if any more crystals would form, but it looked like the same amount afterwards as before. Test Three: In the final test of this experiment, the rain water was used that the researcher collected. Again, the same procedure method was used upon this trial. As shown in Table 1, this test was the shortest out Of the three and thus required the least amount of time. Like test two, the rain water ended up avian crystals form before doing the drop test. The researcher still proceeded to drop the fishing weight into the cup.

It looked like the same amount of crystal from before after the weight was dropped into the solution. Discussion Throughout this experiment, the researcher saw many results that supported the hypothesis for this particular experiment and the claims made by the sources used in this study. Also, many sources of error were found within this research experiment. While trying to keep this particular experiment error free, the constant variables included the same type of cup, CE, and salt, the same bowl, and all of the samples were room temperature before conducting the experiment.

In test one, the temperature started going down very slowly and the researcher had to make a hypothesis on why this was occurring. The temperature in which the individual was conducting the experiment was rather high, so the bowl and the temperature probe were taken outside. After the temperature reached negative one degrees Celsius, the drop test was performed with the glass marble. The glass marble did not have enough energy to induce the crystallization throughout the water, but hen the researcher swirled the water, it began forming sheets of ice.

This supported my source’s claim that superimposing water increases the chance of nucleation when the water is introduced to a source of energy. In test two and three, the water had already formed crystals before the fishing weights could be dropped into the individual cups. Any movement from the table, bowl, cup, or probe could have caused these results. This also supports my source’s claim upon the water instantly freezing. The researcher also found that if you wrap Reynolds wrap around the top of the cup and cover it with ice, hen the chance of getting salt into the cup drastically increases.


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