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Disaster And Crisis Management

A research done by the MIFF suggests that the world is experiencing an increase in the number of victims of natural disasters (Laboratories & Look, 2012). This is mainly because the occurrence of natural disasters has increased rapidly for the past half century. Additionally, more than 450 million people were affected by natural disasters in the years 2009 to 2011 (Laboratories & Look, 2012). This number gives a scope of how much the international community spends before and during the aftermath of such disasters.

Some of the examples of natural disasters suggested by Johnson (2006) include; orangeades, drought and famine, hurricanes, and storms among others. The mentioned types of natural disasters are some of the many lethal calamities the world experiences (Laboratories & Look, 2012). James (2012) connotes that natural disasters usually have negative impacts on the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral development of human beings. It is therefore highly recommended that the international society unite and work towards mitigating this type of disaster.

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Crisis Intervention Approach when Responding to Natural disasters James and Gillian (2012) recommend the application of basic theory when espousing to the natural disaster. This theory suggests that the use of brief, short term therapy helps the patient deal with the emotional problems caused by the disaster. This method of intervention helps the patient deal with temporary cognitive and behavioral issues (James, 2012). However, it is worth noting that this strategy is usually solution focused. Benefits (n. D) argues that after an occurrence Of a natural disaster, the victims are usually subjected to a psychological crisis.

He explains this statement by arguing that most of the victims are unable to cope with the taxation in their typical life situation. For instance, the 1999 Venezuelan flood destroyed the homes of 500,000 people and led to the demise of 50,000 people (Benefits, n. D). This status was bound to cause fear and trauma among the victims and thus the counselors should apply effective intervention approaches while dealing with the victims. The therapist should first get basic information about the victims (James & Gillian, 2012). This psychotherapy procedure is mostly aimed at reducing the tension in the patient.

The victim should be free with the therapist after his process since it sets him/her at ease. It is in this contact stage when the counselor refers the patient to different medical institutions after thorough consultation (Benefits, n. D). Since most victims of natural disasters lose focus in their life, the therapist should work towards helping them realize their goals. The patient should first relax, discuss what happened to them, and try setting new goals (Benefits, n. D). James and Gillian (2012) argue that the victims should be assisted to create goals so as to avoid the occurrence of behavioral emergency.

He further argues that behavioral emergency leads the victims to making lethal actions such as self-injuries and suicide. They should be helped to meet goals such as finding sources of income and shelter after being dislocated as a result of the natural disaster. The use of the expanded crisis theory also helps the psychotherapist to deal with different facets of disaster crisis. For example, the social, situational, and environmental factors are considered when dealing with the crisis (James & Gillian, 2012).

This theory should be applied by therapists so that they can help solve the social factors such as withdrawal from the public. The other intervention theories suggested by James and Gillian (2012) are the psychoanalytical theory, the environmental theory, the systems theory, and the adaptation theory among others. These theories help the disaster victim to deal with the crisis and effectively adapt to the situation. Crisis interventions strategies are used to help restore the disaster victims to their initial cognitive and psychological status.

An Analysis of Ethical, Legal, and Multicultural Considerations Related to Natural Disasters Disaster management is a wide concept which usually arouses a lot of ethical conflicts which bring about the ethical dilemma (Solomon & Rouge, 2002). This is because some natural disasters can be mitigated and those which have already occurred can be positively and effectively dealt with. Academics have divided the disaster ethics in three phases which are the pre- disaster phase, the disaster phase, and the post-disaster phase (Karakas & Hake, 2012).

The pre-disaster phase is usually the stage in which the systems discover a potential disaster and start coming up with strategies which will help mitigate it (Solomon & Rouge, 2002). This is a phase that is usually guided y the ethical responsibility of the society in saving lives from potential harm. The other disaster ethics stage is the disaster phase which involves the provision of support to the victims during the crisis (Karakas & Hake, 2012). The disaster intervention groups should engage in ethical activities while carrying out their operations.

For instance, all the victims should be cared for equally. No patient should be engaged in passive euthanasia in cases of serious injuries (Karakas & Hake, 2012). Every patient should receive fair selections. It is also worth stating that all the victims of natural disasters have he right to medical care regardless of their gender, social status, and political status (Laboratories & Look, 2012). However, these ethical expectations have been conflicted upon and there is no precise ethical principals provided for the people participating in disaster management.

The final stage is the post- disaster intervention phase (Karakas & Hake, 2012). This phase involves the post traumatic treatment on the victims. The victims go through psychotherapy so that their normal lives can be restored. It is highly recommended that therapists should practice fairness in this phase. The harpists should also have personal understanding of the patients in order to avoid issues of misunderstanding (Karakas & Hake, 2012). The therapist should also involve the close relatives of the victims to participate in this process. This is because it helps the patient recover.

There should be provision of information on the legal issues which compromised the community during and after the time of the disaster (Laboratories & Look, 2012). The policies which were ignored and jeopardized the peoples’ lives should be looked into. For example, when a dam was supposed to be constructed to prevent floods and the implementers ignored t, the people in charge should account for the loss. The issue of culture should also be considered especially in global natural issues (Laboratories & Look, 2012). People of all races and origins should be treated fairly during and after such crises.

An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Natural Disasters Natural disasters usually have negative implications on the victims. Some of the impacts of natural disasters affect the behavior and cognition of the victims. This type of disaster also affects the ecosystems as well as the development of the individuals and the global community (Laboratories & Look, 2012). Health agencies are aiming at creating awareness on the psychosocial and sociological impacts of natural disasters. This is mainly because such disasters have affected a large number of people either directly or indirectly (Laboratories & Look, 2012).

Some of the psychological effects of natural disasters are panic and fear. A research by the Federal Office of Civil Protection (n. D) argues that also the relative and friends of the victims get affected by the disaster. They usually go through constant fear for their own lives especially if they are from the same geographical region (Laboratories & Look, 2012). It is also worth noting that natural disasters mostly affect people of certain geographical regions. According HOPES (2012), the increased stress levels and intrusive thoughts on natural disaster victims, has had great impacts on their cognitive functioning.

The research further implies that most of the accidents experienced are usually disaster related. The victims of natural disasters lose focus in most cases if not given proper therapy and this leads to man-made disasters (HOPES, 2012). Some of the effects of cognitive impairments related to natural disasters are the errors of commission and lugging response (HOPES, 2012). The commission errors are usually common with victims who experienced anxiety during a past disaster. This people in most cases do not complete their duties without being distracted (James & Gillian, 2012).

Those who experience sluggish response are usually the victims who experienced depression. Research also shows that people affected by natural disasters have the tendency of engaging in risky behaviors (HOPES, 2012). This type of disaster makes some victims to start acting recklessly due to depression and as a result they even engage in risky behaviors. They engage in risky activities such as drunken driving (HOPES, 2012). Such activities jeopardize their lives after the crisis. Natural disasters also have a number of effects on the ecosystems. The disasters usually affect the plantations, the terrace, and animals (Laboratories & Look, 2012).

For instance, most of the tropical Storms cause the destruction of forests and even forest fire outbreaks due to the severe lightning (Laboratories & Look, 2012). Disasters such as earthquakes and droughts have effects on the land surface. Bradford (2008) argues that once a natural calamity has occurred, the efferent administrations should work towards reconstructing the affected region. The study however brings into focus the effects of natural disasters on the development of a certain group. Natural calamities lead to the destruction of a lot of society wealth (Laboratories & Look, 2012).

For example, the landfall caused near the Louisiana-Mississippi border by the Hurricane Strain resulted to the loss of numerous business and residential property (Bradford, 2008). That situation clarified the impacts of natural disasters on the development of a region. The Global Impact of Natural disasters Natural disasters usually affect different global dynamics (Laboratories & Look, 2012). Natural disasters affect the geopolitical status of a country, conflicting states, and people of diverse backgrounds (Munroe 2006). Such calamities affect people of different regions who have gone to a certain place for vacation or tourism.

It also affects the locals. For instance, the tsunami in the Indian Ocean killed and injured a lot of people who had gone to spend quality time in the beaches of Sir Lankan and Thailand (Munroe, 2006). The tsunami also helped solve the conflict between Cache and Sir Lankan. The two sessions decided to focus more on saving lives and mitigating the disaster. It also had its effect on geopolitics since different states insisted on offering greater assistance for political reasons (Munroe, 2006). India declined external support to show how strong and resourceful the country was in that situation.

Most of the natural disasters gain global attention and as e result of that, many global organizations and states unite to solve the issue. It can therefore be argued that natural disasters usually affect the entire international comma unity and that explains why different administrations usually intervene (Laboratories & Look, 201 2) Crisis Intervention Strategies The use of crisis intervention strategies helps reduce the effects of natural disasters. However, the strategies to be used are mostly guided by different types of crisis intervention models.

One of the models is the equilibrium model (James & Gillian, 2012). This model recommends the strategy of restoring victims to equilibrium. For instance, the crisis management team should approach the victims of a natural disaster and provide emotional and psychological support (James & Gillian, 2012). This strategy helps the victim o cope with the situation. The cognitive model recommends creating awareness of the crisis among the victims. This strategy helps the victims to have a different perception of the disaster (lames & Gillian, 2012).

It also helps the victims gain more control of their life after the trauma. An intervention team should use counselors to help the victims get a different view of the situation. The psychosocial model is also one Of the models which Suggest the use Of psychological therapy that mainly aims at making the victims more relaxed and confident in their judgments (James & Gillian, 2012). This theory’ suggests the use of environmental resources to provide social support. The crisis management team should do this with the aim of changing the behavior of the victims (James & Gillian, 2012).

The most effective and brief strategy is the psychological first aid Scares & Gillian, 2012). This strategy involves immediately dealing with the crisis situation before the victims start experiencing long-term post crisis effects. Among the activities crisis managers should recommend to victims are physical recuperation and provision of rest among others. Potential Long- Term Psychological Effects James and Gillian (2012) argue that natural disasters usually have a lot of psychological effects on human beings. Some of the effects are short-term such as injuries while others are long-term.

This section will discuss one major long-term effect which is usually experienced by disaster victims. This psychological effect is the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (P T SD) (Kara, 2011 PATS occurs when the psychiatric effects of a lethal destruction keep developing (Kara, 201 1). This is an effect that usually lasts through the victim’s lifetime. This syndrome causes residual insomnia and myocardial infractions mongo other negative implications (Kara, 201 1). However, it is condition that can be treated by utilizing the Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

Potential Risk and Resilience Factor Crisis management teams should consider the availability of hazards and the vulnerability of the society as the potential risk factors (James & Gillian, 2012). The frequency of the hazard is usually considered through analyzing the probable factors that might lead to the occurrence of a disaster. Through considering the risk factors, the team can therefore come up with preventive strategies (James & Gillian, 2012). The vulnerability is considered through observing the characteristics of elements which are at high risk of destruction.

Through considering these factors, the society is able to come up with preventive solutions which act as resilience factors (Laboratories & Look, 2012). Analysis of Natural Disasters According to Munroe (2006), there has been an increase in the number of natural disasters occurrence. It is further worth noting that these disasters affect global human-security. The number of fatalities from natural disasters is usually high and this is one of the reasons many people usually get psychologically affected by this type of disaster.


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