Yellow Fever Research Paper
Yellow fever, although not a current major is Sue, has left a mark on the world and has taken millions of lives in its reign of terror. History/ Geography Throughout history yellow fever has had multiple outbreaks across the world . The very first outbreak of yellow fever was recorded in 1648 in the Yucatan Peninsula o f Mexico (Yellow Fever, 2004). “In response to epidemics of yellow fever in Barbados, Cuba, an d the Yucatan, a strict quarantine was established in Boston, Massachusetts, for all ships arrive Eng from the West Indies. ” (The College Of physicians Of Philadelphia, 2015).
Sadly this did not SST pop the nationwide spread of yellow fever in America. The disease first struck Philae APIPA in 1793 and lasted for about four months. ” This outbreak killed about 10% of the city’s population, and thousands more fled, including an infected Alexander Hamilton and his wife. Dry. Benjamin Rush, who stayed, issued guidelines for avoiding infection and helped set up a “fever hospital” for victims. ” (PBS, 2006) Moving forward in time the climax of the yellow fever in the United States was in the Mississippi Valley. Between May 1 878 and October 1 878 AP proximately 20,000 people died to yellow fever (PBS, 2006). Starting in New Orleans, this epidemic spread 4 p the Mississippi Valley to Memphis. More than half of the 47,000 residents of Memphis fled the city; more than 5,000 died that summer of yellow fever. ” (PBS, 2006) The first person to discover yellow was scientist Carols Juan Finial. The ” Cuban epidemiologist who discovered that yellow fever is transmitted from infected to healthy humans by a mosquito The Editors of Unicycledid Britannica , 2014) Even though he made the discovery his ideas were ignored for 20 years. His ideas were finally brought t o attention by a American physician named Walter Reed.
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Through many experiments Finally discoveries were anally proven to be correct. This discovery led to “William Gorges’ eradication n of the disease in Cuba and Panama followed. Finial was appointed chief sanitation officer of Cuba (1902-09), and after his death the Finial Institute for Investigations in Tropical Medicine was created in his honor by the Cuban government. ” ( , 2014) Yellow started off small but then gradually grew larger through time. Places where it is warm and tropical climate are common places where yellow fever is found.
A Africa is the most common place to contract yellow fever. “The vast majority of cases and death s take place in babushkas Africa, where yellow fever is a major public health problem occur ring in epidemic patterns. ” (World Health Organizations], 2015) Yellow fever is also a three at to multiple parts of Latin America. Countries such are Bolivia and Brazil are considered at the greatest risk of yellow fever. With no immunization coverage the infected mosquitoes can easily spread the disease to humans causing multiple deaths in populated urban areas. World Health Organization[WHO], 201 5) The geography of yellow fever is not a coincidence yellow fever is found in the countries with many economical problems In society today. Moving forward there’s no evidence that proves yellow fever has a relation to a certain gender or ethnicity everyone is fair game to a mosquito bite. Effects on Humans Sylvania yellow fever, also known as jungle fever, is when a monkey that Carrie s the disease gets bitten by mosquito which then mosquito transfer the disease to humans. Next we have Intermediate yellow fever.
Intermediate yellow fever is when there are s mediumistic mosquitoes present in very populated area that contain the disease. This is did efferent from Sylvania because the semiotics mosquito already carries the disease it do s not contract it from monkeys it actually infects the monkeys as well as humans. (World Health h Organization, 2014) The epidemic becomes more severe when this type of mosquito comes in contact with humans that don’t have the vaccine in a very populated area. Finally we have urban yellow fever, the most devastating form.
This is caused by the mosquito , Aides Egypt, which found in the tropical areas such as South America, Africa, and the Caribbean. These mosquitoes are usually found in the jungle so when a p errors goes into jungle and gets bitten by one of the infected mosquitoes its dangerous. ; HTH is because when the person comes back to the village he/ she brings the virus over and now if the mosquito the area bite the infected human they also carry the disease. Urban yellow fever can have a detrimental long term effect on cities and most populated areas.
When a huh man being contracts yellow fever the likelihood of the development of symptoms is 520%(Yellow F ever, 2004). According to The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, most of the symptoms of yellow w are substantial. (Yellow Fever, 2004) Therefore its very difficult to diagnose yellow f ever. So in 6 order to know if yellow fever is present you have to go to your doctor and take blood tests to find the viral infection. When you have yellow fever you grow five brutal stages. The first stage is the called the incubation stage. In the first three to six days is when the virus develops no s homonyms are present in this stage.
Next stage is called the period of invasion. In this stage the infected can experience fevers, chills, nausea, muscle ache, and extreme exhaustion (Leer re, 2004). Also ” the patient’s tongue shows a characteristic white furry coating in the center, s rounded by beefy red margins. ” (Yellow Fever, 2004) “While most other infections that cause an elevation in enrapture also cause an increase in heart rate, yellow fever produces an UN usual symptom, called Page’s sign-?the simultaneous occurrence of a high fever with a slowed d heart rate.
Throughout the period Of invasion, there are still viruses circulating in the Patti net’s blood stream, so continued viral transmission through mosquito vectors is possible. ” According to World Health Organization, The majority of infections occur in young men working in the forest (World Health Organization, 2014). The third period of yellow is called remission. In this stage the fever starts to die and symptoms begin to disappear AR. This sign can mean two things. One is that the fever is gone and the patient is cured.
On the e other hand, this could mean that this wastes the beginning of the clinical course of the fever and the patient will experience the last two stages of yellow fever. The fourth stage of the disease e is known as the intoxication. According to Learner ” During this time, lasting three to nine days, a type of degeneration, or tissue breakdown, of the internal organs-?specifically the kidneys,liver, and heart-?occurs. ” Also in this stage a person can also contract jaundice disease. This is when errors has damage to the liver causing their skin and the whites of their eyes to tint yellow. When the liver is damaged it causes bleeding. When this happens it creates a another symptom called black vomit. Black vomit is when you regurgitate blood. After this grog issue period we finally hit the final stage Of convalescence which is the recovering period. This is when the infected become immune the virus and never can have it again. Treatment/Cure Yellow fever, unfortunately, has no cure however there are vaccines and treat meets that help in fighting against the disease. To relieve some of the symptoms it is race emended to use acetaminophen.
Avoid using products such as ibuprofen or aspirin these pro ducts can actually complicate the problem and make matters worse than what they already are. People who experience kidney failure during the stages of yellow fever usually are treated with dialysis. “The required management consists of evocative medications, fluid resuscitation, ventilator management, and treatment of disseminated intramuscular coagulation, hem recharge, secondary infections, and renal and hepatic dysfunction. ” (Bouzoukis, 2014). Staying hydrated is key to fighting off yellow fever.
Dehydration, due to fluid loss both from fever and bleeding, must be carefully avoided. The risk of bleeding into the stomach can be decreased thru cough the administration of antacids and other medications. ” (Yellow Fever, 2004) Victim ms Of yellows fever in the process can acquire hemorrhages. ” Hemorrhages may require blood transfusions, and kidney failure may require dialysis, a process that allows the work of the kidneys in clearing the blood of potentially toxic substances to be taken over by a machine that is outside of the body. (Yellow Fever, 2004) It is recommended that “travelers should also take e precautions against mosquito bites when in areas with yellow fever transmission. Traveler s should get vaccinated for yellow fever before visiting areas where yellow fever is found. ” (CDC, 2014) 8 There is a vaccine available for the yellow fever. However there a few side beef sects that can occur after taking the vaccine. For example, common side effects would include aches, soreness, redness, and sometimes a fever. There are also severe conditions t hat can occur after taking the vaccine.
According to CDC, allergic reactions, organ failure, and near Voss system reactions can happen but they are extremely rare side effects so most of the t me taking the yellow vaccine is completely reasonable and safe to use. According to the Gal e Article on Yellow Fever, 95% of patients who take the yellow fever vaccine are immune a against the yellow fever and are able to live long prosperous lives. Morphology/ Pathology Yellow fever is caused by the microbe fallacious The prefix “flail” means yellow in Latin so this is why yellow fever is called yellow due to the fact that the effluvia us causes skin to turn yellow.
The derives from the family of the Fluoridate The only way to contract this microbe is through being bitten by a mosquito or tick According to NYC Lobelia Britannica, the s extremely small it has a diameter between 40 and 60 manometers which is completely normal for a virus. “The genome consists of engorgement’s singletrees positive sense RNA” (Britannica, 201 3) When a virus has positive sense genome it has ability to act as Mrs. soon as it reaches the host cell. Therefore the virus it has the ability to spread rape idly than a negative sense genome.
The process of yellow fever replication starts out with the vex tort invades the living host membrane. The sapid lands on the host cell membrane and deep sits its single stranded positive sense RNA into the cytoplasm of the host cell The RNA data Hess to the ribosome which then creates RNA polymerase which is a type of protein. The e RNA polymerase 9 made a template Of the virus and the template is create as negative sense. N owe that the virus has a negative sense template it is now ready to replicate positive sense RNA the original genome of the virus.
These positive sense RNA are now coded for the sapid of the flavor iris and this process just keeps going on until the host is completely infected. This process is extremely fast so once a person is infected with the it won’t take long for It to spread therefore it is extremely difficult to treat for it. The replication of this microbe is also the life cycle as well. The fallacious works on the lit cycle. The lit cycle is ‘the process in which a virus overtakes a cell and uses the cellular machinery of its host cell to reproduce.
Copies oft he virus fill the cell to bursting, killing the cell and releasing the viruses to infect more cells. ” ( 2000) The shape of the is icosahedra. “An icosahedra virus is a virus consisting of identical subunits that make up equilateral triangles that are, in turn, arrange d in a symmetrical fashion. ” (Espresso, 2015) This is popular of the virus shape because its the optimal sapid for a Virus. This is because of the complexity of the shape provides the virus stab laity making it hard for the living host break/ destroy the sapid so therefore its very hard to destroy the virus because of its shape.
Within in the sapid we have the virus which is a very single star need piece of RNA. Ironically the genome itself is not stable as the sapid which is travels in Single stranded RNA can easily mutate into different forms of the fallacious So when the virus passes the living host cell membrane its almost near to impossible to for the immune system t fight/adapt to the virus because of the rapid mutations making it hard to code for a remedy to if get off the virus.
Issues and Solutions Yellow fever . The origin of yellow derives from mosquito. Mosquitoes, as you u can see, are all over the place and very tiny so eradicating them is a hopeless cause e. Therefore, 10 attempting to eliminate yellow fever off the planet is impossible. However, “t considering whether to approve the experimental use of genetically modified mosquitoes in the Florida Keys to help stop the spread of dengue fever and other diseases. (Alley n, 2015) The ensue fever stems from the same microbe as the yellow fever, the fallacious. They developed this idea when the Aides Egypt started to became immune to the pesticides. The United States wasn’t the first ones to think of this idea of genetically modified mosquitoes. “Experiments already conducted in Malaysia, Brazil and the Cayman Islands have found that releasing bioengineering male mosquitoes can reduce the A. Egypt population by 90 percent. (Allen, 2015) So with the arise of a new weapon against a similar disease to yellow fee verve can assume that there will new remedies and treatments against yellow in the en r future. Third world countries, sad as it is, can’t recover because Of diseases such as y allow running ramped. It is very discouraging to trade or to have any affiliations wit h a country that has multiple diseases. Not only do viruses like yellow isolate a country but alls o it destroys the financial stability of third world countries.
People in places like Africa, South A America, and the Caribbean die in dozens everyday from yellow fever and the multiple other did ceases which then decreases labor. With a decrease in labor it is really hard to revive the economy my from a inbreeding spiral of depression. Nearly all major urban centers in the American tropics have been reinvested with Aides Egypt and most urban dwellers are vulnerable because of low immunization coverage v” (World Health Organization, 2015) In a way, it’s like these countries were never meant to be successful.
The majority of the diseases and viruses Of the world, including yellow fever, originate from these areas of the world and they have been here for many centuries now. So it just makes a person wonder are there parts of the world that aren’t meant to 11 be successful? Yellow has left a trail of knots that been here for centuries and owe these countries have to unravel the knots all by themselves. Conclusion Currently there are no major outbreaks of yellow fever but that doesn’t mean this disease is dead it’s still out there.