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Paper Code: MCA- 304 Paper Name: Internet Fundamentals Lesson Number: 01Author: Parvinder Singh Vetter: Dr. PradeepK. BhatiaINTRODUCTIONObjective: The objective of the present lesson is to be familiar with concepts, history and terms related to Internet. Internet related organizations and network related command will also be discussed.Structure1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7Growth of Computer Networking Complexity in Network Systems Growth of Internet Probing the Internet Interpreting a Ping Response Tracing a Route Self Assessment Questions (SAQA)1.1Growth of Computer NetworkingMost historical reviews of the networking imply that networking began with ARPANET(Advance Research Project Agency Network). In a sense, digital transmission of data began when Samuel B. Morse, one of the famous scientiest publicly demonstrated the telegraph in 1844. In 1874, Thomas Edison invented the idea of multiplexing two signals in each direction over a single wire. With higherMCA-3041 speeds and multiplexing, Edison’s teletype replaced Morse’s manual system; and a few teletype installations still exist today.The early telegraph systems were, in modern terms, point-to-point links. As the industry grew, switching centers acted as relay stations and paper tape was the medium that the human routers used to relay information from one link to another. Figure 1 illustrates a simple single-layer telegraphic network configuration. Figure 2 shows a more complex multilayered network.Figure 1 (Single layered telegraphic network)MCA-304Figure 1.2 ( Multilayered Network) 2 The links of these networks were point-to-point asynchronous serial connections. For a paper tape network, the incoming information was punched on paper tape by highspeed paper tape punches and was then manually loaded on an outgoing paper tape reader. In 1962, Paul Baran and his colleagues at the Rand Corporation of USA were tackling the problem of how to build a…


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