The Study on Job Satisfaction Among Academic Staff in the German Malaysian Institute
Chapter 1 (GMI) 1. 0 Introduction The attrition rate among academic staff at non-governmental universities and colleges is one the rise. Its effect is not only to the organization but also to the students. The researcher will be focusing on the state of affairs and do a deeper researcher in this area. The researcher believes that one of the reasons for this state of attrition rate is lower job satisfaction among academic. This chapter contains the research topic together with the statement of the problem that is derived from the research question.
The research will look into the objectives of the study, the significance of the research and the research questions. 1. 1 Background of the organization The German Malaysian Institute was set up by Gurantee as a limited company in which the founders are the Malaysian German Chamber of Commerce and industry (MGCC) and MajlisAmanah Rakyat (MARA)(http://forum. lowyat. net). The institute was formed as a result of a project which was a joint venture between German and the Malaysian Government. The reason for this joint venture is to encourage the transfer of technology through technical education and training (http://visit-to-kl. om). It is also as a result of promoting Malaysian industry by producing highly skilled technicians or technologies in the field of precision engineering such as Mould and Die, Instrumentation and Control, Electronics and Information Technology and Mechatronics. The ex-prime minister of Malaysia named TunDrMahadir Muhammad is the one who launched the German Malaysian Institute in 1991 and the following year of 1992 was when the institute started its operation. It started enrolling student in 1992 as well and since from that time the numbers of students continues growing till up to date.
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There are 10 board of directors who governed the German Malaysian Institute and they are all from the government bodies and also from the industry (http://forum. lowyat. net). There are 250 lecturers at GMI and the total number of students is 338. The courses that are being offered at GMI are Production Technology and Industrial Electronics with specialization in the areas of Mould, Mechatronics,Electronics & Information Technology, Product Design & Manufacturing,Tool & Die, Process Instrumentation & Control and Network Security. 1. 2 Vision of the organization We are an internationally competitive learning organization delivering high quality technical education training and services for the development of competent and innovative human capital; responsive to global industry demands” (German-Malaysian Institute, 2011). 1. 3 Mission Statement of the organization “As a premier Malaysian learning organization that provide technical education and training using blended methodology for lifelong learning, customer oriented services, high quality industrial solutions and pre-university preparation studies” (German-Malaysian Institute, 2011). . 4 Problem statement The researcher has managed to come up with a problem statement of the research topic “The study on job satisfaction among academic staff in the German Malaysian Institute”. The problem statement is that there appears to be more dissatisfaction among academic staff in the German Malaysian Institute in the recent years and this may affect the teaching quality in the institute and any other things.
The researcher is of the opinion that this dissatisfaction may be related to various factors such as lack of promotion prospects, the physical working environment being not too good and the remuneration received is not as expected comparing the effort the academic staff is putting toward achieving the organizational goals. The non-monetary benefits are other causes that may lead to dissatisfaction if not provided for example medical insurance, educational benefits, housing and transport allowances. 1. 5 Objectives of the project ?To identify the level of job satisfaction among academic staff of the German Malaysian Institute. To identify these factors that causes a job satisfaction amongst academic staff in the German Malaysian Institute. ?To recommend steps that can be taken by the management of the German Malaysian Institute to increase job satisfaction at the workplace and thereby reduce the dissatisfaction level on its academic staff and other negative effects. 1. 6 Research questions 1. To what extent does promotion influences job satisfaction among academic staff in German Malaysian Institute? 2. Is the academic staff satisfied with the physical/working environment and the services provided to them by the organization? . Do salary have an influence job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute 4. To what extent does age influence job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute? 5. To what extent does non-monetary benefits leads to job satisfaction? 1. 7 Significance of study This study is very important in that will have to ascertain the level of job satisfaction among the academic staff in the German Malaysia Institute. It will clearly outline the significance of job satisfaction and how academic staffs react when they are satisfied with the job or otherwise.
The academic staff in the German Malaysian Institute can only be satisfied with their jobs or organization when certain services or benefits are provided by the organization. There are several factors that may lead to job satisfaction in each and every academic staff and these factors are going to be explained in detail in the next chapter. When the organization is able to identify and understand these factors, it will be easy to increase job satisfaction level of the academic staff and this will bring about positive result and put the organization in a better comparative advantage stage. 1. Background of the education in Malaysia There are various education systems in Malaysia and this comprises of community colleges, polytechnics, private and public higher education institutions. The community colleges provide with fulltime academic programs and short courses, depending on what the local community has requested. Certificates and diploma are offered by the polytechnics as a source of professional workforce. The following education institutions falls under private higher education institute that is the university colleges, colleges, virtual/e-universities, IT academies, universities,open niversities, and oversees branch campuses. The public higher education institutions have universities and university colleges (Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, 2005). When the government of Malaysia passed three educational bills in 1996 that is when the expansion of private and public higher education was experienced. Between 1998 and 2000 the expansion of higher education for private increased by 60 percent and in between 2003 and 2005 it also increased by 20 percent. On the other hand, public higher education institutions increased by 37. 6 percent that was between 2000 and 2003.
In the period between 2003 and 2005 it increased by 20 percent (Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, 2005). 1. 9 Research Hypothesis Ho: There is no significance relationship between promotion prospects and job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute. H1: There is a significance relationship between promotion prospects and job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute. Ho:There is no significant relationship between the physical working environment and job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute.
H1:There is a significant relationship between the physical working environment and job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute. Ho:There is no significant relationship between remuneration/salary earned and job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute. H1:There is a significant relationship between remuneration/salary earned and job satisfaction among academic staff in German-Malaysian Institute. 2. 0 Definition of variables Promotion Promotion defined by Smith (2011) as “an increase in rank which may also be accompanied by a raise in pay, benefits, and responsibility”.
Physical working environment/working condition “Working conditions refers to the working environment and to the non-pay aspects of an employee’s terms and conditions of employment” (Eurofound, 2007). Salary “A salary is an agreed upon amount of pay that is to be extended at regular intervals, in exchange for the competent performance of specific tasks within the workplace”(Tatum, 2011). Age Age is “the length of time that one has existed; duration of life” (http://www. answers. com). In general age is the period of time which an individual has lived. 2. 1 Chapter Scheme
Chapter 1 In this chapter that is where the introduction of the research topic is found. It talks briefly about the problem statement, objectives, research questions, significance of the study, and the background of the organization of which the study is being contacted. Chapter 2 This where all the published articles, journals, newspapers, textbooks, and so on with the relevant information related to research topic is going to be critically analyzed and evaluated. The gaps related to the research topic will be tried to be identified and look for solution to minimize them.
Chapter 3 In this chapter that is where the research methodology. The population size and the sample size together with the techniques used to gather information is found. The questionnaires and interviews are among the techniques used to collect or gather the information from the responded. Chapter 4 All the findings and data that has been collected from chapter three are processed using the software called SPSS and get analyzed. Chapter 5 The researcher will give more clarity on the findings. Chapter 6
This chapter summarizes the whole project in short possible way that is understood by the second or third party and includes the recommendations 2. 3 Conclusion In this chapter the factors that affect job satisfaction among academic staff has been identified and these are promotion, the physical environment, salary and the age of the employees. Hypothesis, objectives and the research question has been identified as well. Chapter 2 Literature review 2. 0 Introduction The main aim of this literature review is to critically review on published information related job satisfaction.
Many organizations or businesses have found that job satisfaction is a matter of concern and it needs attention (Wubuli, 2009). Employee job satisfaction is very important because it increases the satisfaction level of employees and make the business run and perform well, preferably at its optimum level. 2. 1 Job satisfaction Job satisfaction among employees is one of the attributes that organizations wish their employees to have (Oshagbemi, 2003). Vandenberg and Lance (1992) cited Locke (1976) defining job satisfaction as the “pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job and job experience”.
In general, job satisfaction is the level of degree where one feels positive or negative regarding his or her job. Employees who are more satisfied with their work or organization are less likely to quit their jobs or leave the organization (Freeman, 1978, Aberloff, Rose and Yellen, 1988, McEvoy and Cascio, 1985, Pergamit and Veum, 1999, Clark, 2001, Shields and Ward, 2001). The absenteeism of workers is reduced when they satisfied with their job and this can be supported by Clegg (1983) who stated that there is a lower rate of absenteeism when the employees are satisfied with services provided by their employer.
However, employees that are dissatisfied with their jobs are more likely to have a high rate of absenteeism and turnover rate as well (Chen, et al. ,2006). The benefit of satisfying employees at their jobs or workplace is that the rate of productivity is high. According to Mangione and Quinn, (1975), the productivity rate is high in an organization where the employees feel more satisfied and the organizational efficiency is determined by the morale of the employees (Chaudhary and Banerjee, 2004). 2. Theories of job satisfaction There are varies theories which do not need to be ignored when discussing about job satisfaction, but in this literature review only the content theory will be discussed. The content theory by Maslow and Herzberg states that job satisfaction is reached once the need for growth and self actualization is met. As a passing remark content theories of motivation answer the question of what motivation is whilst the process theories deal with how to motivate individuals or groups. 2. Herzberg’s Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction may be caused by different and multiple of independent factors. Herzberg reviewed that if an individual is satisfied, it is clearly shown at the work itself and when there is dissatisfaction people are more concerned with the environment where they are working. In regarding the work itself, work achievement, promotion opportunities, the nature of the job, personal growth opportunities and recognition are all factors relating to the work itself.
Herzberg called these factors motivators because they are suppose to motivate people to a higher level of performance. Looking on the other hand, the factors that lead to dissatisfaction are the working condition, job security, salary in relation with others, company policies and the quality of supervision. Herzberg called these factors hygiene factor. Hygiene factors, if non-existent will prevent job dissatisfaction and the management must maintain these factors always because when these factors are taken for granted or being provided at a minimal level it will lead to dissatisfaction among workers.
According to Manisera, Dussledorp, and Van der Kooij(2005) who quoted Herzberg “When the hygiene factors are satisfied and the environment is good, workers are not dissatisfied but neither are they necessarily satisfied and hence they are not motivated to bring about higher performances. However, when motivators are satisfied, workers are satisfied and often this satisfaction leads to better performance” 2. 4 Maslow’s theory The inception of Maslow’s theory in 1954 was the brainchild of Abraham H. Maslow.
This theory is well known as the theory of human needs and is sometimes referred to as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. According to this theory, people will never reach a stage where they would say they are satisfied once they have achieved something because they always want more, and more. Once a need has been fulfilled, the other one will protrude or surface. Maslow divided these human needs into five hierarchies, that is, starting from the bottom to the higher end needs – , physiology, safety, belongingness and love, esteem and self-actualization.
Maslow found out that the basic needs such as shelter, water, clothes, food and shelter need to be provided first then comes the second stage of safety where it consist of financial security which in turn can depend on job security. The third stage is the need for belongingness and love, or in short, the social need. Man is, after all a social animal. The employees need to be loved in the environment where they are working. The fourth stage refers to the self-esteem and recognition needs required by the co-workers. The last stage which is the fifth is the self-actualization needs. . 4. 1 Chart 1: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Source: http://www. abraham-maslow. com 2. 5 Factors affecting job satisfaction There are several factors that lead to job satisfaction on employees. According to Arnold and Fieldman(1996), the positive and negative feeling of employees on their job can be through variety of factors such as promotion, physical environment, salary/compensation, age just to mention a few. 2. 5. 1 Promotion Promotion is one the significant factors of an employees’ career and life and, this affects other facets of the work experience.
This comprises an essential aspect of employees’ mobility, most frequently bringing about a considerable wage increment, (Kosteas, 2009, Blau and DeVaro, 2007, Cobb-Clark, 2001 and Francesconi, 2001). According to Chua (2005), promotion of employees has been important and it is highly realted to job satisfaction. By looking at some other renowned scholars like Vroom (1964) who stated that significance influence of promotion towards job satisfaction such as promotion opportunities, group works, working hours and the content of the job itself are factors that may affect the job satisfaction among workers.
In my own opinion, promotion is very important too because once an employee stays longer and works hard for the company or organization the next thing he or she thinks of is the promotion. Basically promotion here refers to moving to jobs higher up in the organizational hierarchy. The promotion of employees makes them feel satisfied and is definite a morale booster because they are being given more responsibilities which are more challenging tasks rather than doing the same mundane job over and over again. It becomes boring, unchallenging and monotonous. . 5. 2 Physical Environment/working condition The job satisfaction together with the performance gets affected by the physical environment/working condition where people work (Davis, 1987, Brill, Margalis and Konar 1985, Dolden and Ward 1986, Clement-Croome, 2000, Newsham, Veitch, Chartes, Clinton, Marguardl, Bradley, Shaw and Readon, 2004). The indoor air quality, lighting and ergonomic furniture are the aspects of physical environment in which employees seek to have (Dilan, 2004, Milton, Glencross and Walters, 2000, Veitch and Newsham, 2000).
In my own opinion, physical environment has an impact on job satisfaction on employees. The impact might be positive or negative depending on what the employee feel about the environment. If the environment is good for the employee he or she feels satisfied about his or her job but if the environment is not pleasant he or she is dissatisfied. The employee prefers working in an environment where there is a greater physical comfort and convenience (Wubuli, 2009). When these things are not available the worker may be affected mentally and sometimes their physical well being as well.
Employees believe that poor working condition result in a negative performance, and this should not be taken for granted because it affects their mentality and the physical well being of the employee together with the overall performance of the company. 2. 5. 3 Salary The most fundamental reason why the majority of people go to work is to earn money. (Garvahal, 1999), reviewed that the level of money which is earned by employee exert a certain level of substantial and positive effects on job satisfaction and this will lead to higher level of satisfaction.
In the study that was conducted regarding the academic staff particularly in Malaysia by Samthapparaj and Syed (2005) reviewed that pay has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction in academic institutions especially on academic staff. The salary of the employees must be given according to the contribution made during a certain period of time so that the employee will feel they are compensated and recognized by their employer with the work they are doing.
In my own opinion, the salary of the employee must be equivalent to the contribution made, if this is not the case, the employee feels dissatisfied and may consider to leave the organization by any possible means. This may result in high level of dissatisfaction and high rate of turnover in the organization. Rewards and recognition are very important in the perspective of an employee because with the present of financial rewards and recognition this has been noted that there is a significant influence on employees (Arnold and Boshoff, 2004). . 5. 4 Age In the labour market the trend indicates that, the people who are older play the most important role in the society or organization, (Eichar et al. , 1991). According to Chua (2005), the perception of academic staff towards job satisfaction is sometimes determined by age. In organizations senior staffs are being recognized by their experience and their age as well. The younger staff normally respects the elders because their age is equated with the experience they have.
The most dissatisfied employees in an organization are the younger males while those who close to the retirement stage are the ones who are satisfied with their job (Shahri, 2001). The employees who are 40 years and above are reported to be the ones who have a higher level of job satisfaction as compared to those employees who less than 40 years of age regardless of their tenure in the industry (Siassi et al. , 1975). 2. 6 Theoretical framework This theoretical framework only determines the possible factors that may affect job satisfaction in organizations particularly among academic staff.
These factors include promotion, physical environment, salary and age. 2. 6. 1 Figure 1: Theoretical Framework. Organisational factors ?Promotion. ?Physical environment. ?Salary. Job Satisfaction Individual factors ?Age 2. 7 Conclusion In conclusion, organizations should not neglect the fact that job satisfaction is very essential in their businesses especially on employees. Once the employees are satisfied with the services, benefits, etc provided by the organization they stay longer with the company and they are less likely to quit their jobs.
The management should understand the content theory of motivation as proposed by Abraham H. Maslow which is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the theory of Fredrick Herzberg called Herzberg motivation-Hygiene theory (two factor theory). For the employees to be motivated certain things must be provided such as good working conditions, reasonable salary, promotional opportunities and the like. Chapter 3 3. 0 Introduction This chapter clearly identifies the population and the sample size that was used as well as the data collection tools used by the researcher during this project.
Questionnaire and interview are the sampling techniques used. 3. 2 Population Population is the total figure of academic staff that is targeted by the research. The total number of academic staff at GMI is large enough for the researcher to carry out a survey and come out with the required information. There are varies department in which academic staff at GMI lecture such as Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Production Technology, and so on. 3. 3 Sample size They are 250 academic staff members at GMI in total.
The researcher set out the questionnaire 110 of the academic staff but the total number of academic staff who respondent were only 85. 3. 4 Research approach There are two types of research methodologies that the researcher has managed to come up with. These research methodologies are quantitative method and qualitative method because they best suit the researcher’s requirements (Sekaran, 2003). 3. 4. 1 Quantitative research Quantitative researches are gathering of information and examine the statistical data. (Neil, 2007), identified the features of quantitative research as being effective and efficient.
It allows the researcher to use for hypothesis testing and the conceptual details may be missed. The type of all the information being collected is in numerical form 3. 4. 2 Qualitative research Qualitative research gives the clear picture and understanding individual’s feeling, concern, behavour, motivation, attitude and so on. In qualitative research method there is the analysis of documents from the materials that are unstructured. The unstructured materials may involve interviews, observation, survey and the forms of the respondents who are ready to give their feedback.
The gathering and analysis of data may become messy when conducted manually and it is time consuming. 3. 5 Research method The findings and collection of data from the academic staff at GMI used was via the questionnaire and the of face to face interview method. The researcherdecided to use questionnaire and interview after analyzing all the data collection tools. The researcher used the sampling method which is convenient, inexpensive,effective and efficiency. Random sampling was chosen because all the academic staffs had the equal chance of being picked up to fill the questionnaire or being interviewed.
Questionnaire is the best method in descriptive and that is why the researcher opted for it because it helps in identifying different phenomena of variables like attitude and opinion. It identifies the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. 3. 5. 1 Questionnaire Questionnaire is used by the researcher to gather the relevant primary data and it is a well structured technique. Advantages of using questionnaire ?There is a large portion of group in which the information can be collected from. ?This is a quick way of gathering information or data Disadvantages of using questionnaire Interpretation of questions might be needed because questionnaire is set in a way which is standardized. 3. 5. 2 Interview Interview was also used in gathering information from the academic staffs. Interview is when the interviewer meets with the respondent face to face and asks questions about the researched topic. Advantage of using interview ?Social cues are helpful if the interviewer identifies them during the interview for example the tone of voice, facial expression and so on. Disadvantages of using interview ?It consumes time because sometimes the interviewer needs to ask for permission before the real interview. . 6 Statistical tools The researcheruses the SPSS to do the calculation of large numbers and analysis of data. It also helps to produce the frequency tables and run the hypothesis testing which includes t-testing, chi-squared testing. The testing will be used to find out the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variables. 3. 7 Limitations of the study The researcher encountered few limitations and constraints that may be taken into consideration for future study. Firstly, limited time, the time was fully enough to obtain all the distributed questionnaires back.
Secondly, the other constraint was finance since the researcher was conducting a survey using a university which is located bit far way from where the researcher stays. The researcher had to take a taxi to get to the GMI. Last but not least, some of the respondents were unwilling to cooperate especially on face to face interview. 3. 8 Conclusion The researcher has managed to come up with the research methods of questionnaire and interview on the research topic job satisfaction among academic staff. The sampleinitially targeted by the researcherwas 110 though the researcher only managed to get a total of 85 respondents.
The researcher used the description method in analyzing the collected information. CHAPTER 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation 4. 0 Introduction In this chapter, the findings of the information will be discussed and be interpreted according to the outcomes. The researcher will use the SPSS to analyze the data and there are four statistical tools which have been used by the researcher to analyze the data. These tools comprises of frequency, percentage, average, reliability, correlation and chi-squared analysis. Correlation and chi-squared are used in hypothesis testing and support the model of the research.
Charts, diagrams, graphs were also used to shed more light on the findings. 4. 1 Frequency Analysis 4. 1. 1 Table 1: Gender of respondents GenderFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Male4350. 650. 650. 6 Female4249. 449. 4100. 0 Total85100. 0100. 0 4. 1. 2 Chart 3:Gender of respondents The table above represents the total number of gender particularly the academic staff at GMI. The respondents are male and female of which 43 are male and 42 are female. The total percentage of male and female who took part in answering the questionnaire is 50. 6% and 49. 4% respectively.
This conform that GMI provides employment opportunity to all irrespective of gender and equality is maintained. 4. 1. 3 Table 2: Age Respondents AgeFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Below 301720. 020. 020. 0 30-404350. 650. 670. 6 41-502124. 724. 795. 3 51-6044. 74. 7100. 0 Total85100. 0100. 0 4. 1. 4 Chart 3:Age Respondents The majority of academic staff at GMI is of age between 30 and 40 with a total percentage of 50. 6 because this age group still wants challenging things as compared to the other age groups. It is followed by 41 to 50, then those of below 30 and last but not least 51 to 60.
Their percentages are 24. 7, 20. 0 and 4. 7 respectively. 4. 1. 5 Table 3: Marital status Marital StatusFrequencyPercentValid PercentCumulative Percent Single2023. 523. 523. 5 Married5969. 469. 492. 9 Divorced67. 17. 1100. 0 Total85100. 0100. 0 4. 1. 6 Chart 4:Marital status From the table above 59 academic staffs are married with 69. 4%. The single are 20 with 23. 4% and the divorced one are 6 with 7. 1%. The academic staff who are married at GMI are the ones that participate more in teaching. 4. 2 Reliability Analysis Reliability of measure is normally used when testing for consistency and stability of the data collected.
Reliability shows the concept on how well the variables are hanged together. Cronbach’s alpha is a reliability coefficient that shows how well the set of variables correlate with each other. According to Sekaran (2003), any figure below 0. 6 is considered poor and when the Cronbach’sAlpha moves closer to 1 is very strong and well accepted. 4. 2. 1Table 4:Thumb rules of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient size Alpha coefficient rangeStrength of Association ? 6Poor 0. 6 to < 0. 7Moderate 0. 7 to < 0. 8Good 0. 8 to < 0. 9Very good 0. 9Excellent Source: Hair et al. (2003). 4. 3 Reliability table for independent variables . 3. 1 Table 5: Case Processing Summary CasesN% Valid85100. 0 Excludeda0. 0 Total85100. 0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items .94514 Cronbach’s alpha is for the independent variables in section A of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha for the variable is 0. 945 which is highly favorable and well acceptable and it is excellent. 4. 4 Reliability table for dependent variables 4. 4. 1 Table 7: Case Processing Summary N% CasesValid8195. 3 Excludeda44. 7 Total85100. 0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure.
Reliability statistics Cronbach’s AlphaN of Items .96016 The Cronbach’s alpha for the dependent variable is 0. 96 which considered being good and is well acceptable. According to Hair et al (2003) the variables measured excellent 4. 5 Correlations Correlation coefficient is used by the researcher to test hypothesis. Sekaran(2003) suggested that when testing using correlation it is better to use Pearson correlation matrix because it is accurate. 4. 5. 1 Table9: Correlation’s rules Coefficient rangeStrength of association ±0. 81 to ±1. 00Strong ±0. 61 to ±0. 80Moderate ±0. 42 to ±0. 60Weak ±0. 21 to ±0. 40Very weak ±0. 0 to ±0. 20None Source: Burns and Bush (2000). Pearson coefficient of correlation should have a probability of 0. 01 level of significant so as to be considered a statistical significant. The result of this study when using correlation coefficient is determined at two-tailed test. 4. 6 Pearson Correlation Ho: There is no significant relationship between promotion and job satisfaction. H1: There is significant relationship between promotion and job satisfaction 4. 6. 1 Table 10: Descriptive Statistics VariablesMeanStd. DeviationN Promotion3. 04711. 0567985 Advancementlevel3. 3529. 9723185 4. 6. 2 Table 11: Correlations
Variables Statistical toolsPromotionAdvancementlevel PromotionPearson Correlation1. 702** Sig. (2-tailed). 000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products93. 81260. 588 Covariance1. 117. 721 N8585 AdvancementlevelPearson Correlation. 702**1 Sig. (2-tailed). 000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products60. 58879. 412 Covariance. 721. 945 N8585 **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). The table above shows that there is a moderate relationship between promotion and the level of advancement which is one of the variables for job satisfaction among academic staff at GMI because the value is 0. 702.
According to Burns and Bush (2000) there is a positive relationship between promotion and the advancement level that leads to job satisfaction. It can be said that the respondents consider promotion to be very essential. Therefore, Ho is rejected and accepts H1. 4. 7 Pearson Correlation Ho: There is no significant relationship between working condition and job satisfaction. H1: There is a significant relationship between working condition and job satisfaction. 4. 7. 1 Table 12: Descriptive Statistics VariablesMeanStd. DeviationN WorkingCondition3. 3647. 6874285 Satisfiedwithjob3. 14121. 0253185 4. 7. 2 Table 13: Correlations
Variables Statistical tools WorkingConditionSatisfiedwithjob WorkingConditionPearson Correlation1. 602** Sig. (2-tailed). 000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products39. 69435. 624 Covariance. 473. 424 N8585 SatisfiedwithjobPearson Correlation. 602**1 Sig. (2-tailed). 000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products35. 62488. 306 Covariance. 4241. 051 N8585 **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). The table above shows that there is a moderate relationship between promotion and the level of advancement which is one of the variables for job satisfaction among academic staff at GMI because the value is 0. 02. According to Burns and Bush (2000) there is a positive relationship between promotion and the advancement level that leads to job satisfaction. It can be said that the respondents consider promotion to be very essential. Therefore, Ho is rejected and accepts H1. 4. 8 Pearson Correlation Ho: There is no significant relationship between salary or pay and job satisfaction. H1: There is a significant relationship between salary or pay and job satisfaction. 4. 8. 1 Table 14: Descriptive Statistics MeanStd. DeviationN Salaryorpay3. 0353. 9315585 Satisfiedtakepride3. 2941. 7991685 4. 8. 2 Table 15: Correlations
Variables Statistical toolsSalaryorpaySatisfiedtakepride SalaryorpayPearson Correlation1. 658** Sig. (2-tailed). 000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products72. 89441. 118 Covariance. 868. 489 N8585 SatisfiedtakepridePearson Correlation. 658**1 Sig. (2-tailed). 000 Sum of Squares and Cross-products41. 11853. 647 Covariance. 489. 639 N8585 **. Correlation is significant at the 0. 01 level (2-tailed). There is positive and significant relationship between salary/pay and job satisfaction where correlation value is 0. 658 and significant is 0. 000. Therefore, Ho is rejected and accepts H1. 4. 9 Hypothesis 1
Ho: There is no significant relationship between promotion and job satisfaction. H1: There is significant relationship between promotion and job satisfaction 4. 9. 1 Table 16: Chi-Square Tests ValuedfAsymp. Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square69. 599a16. 000 Likelihood Ratio78. 03116. 000 Linear-by-Linear Association41. 3921. 000 N of Valid Cases85 a. 19 cells (76. 0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is . 24. From the table above shows the p-value is printed as . 000. This should be interpreted as p< 0. 001, and not be taken as exactly 0. The result: The Chi-squared test statistics is 69. 599 with an associate p