All surface water and some groundwaters require treatment prior to consumption to ensure that they do not represent a health risk to the user. Health risks to consumers from poor quality water can be due to microbiological, chemical, physical or radioactive contamination. However, microbiological contamination is generally the most important to human health as this leads to infectious diseases which affect all populations groups, many of which may cause epidemics and can be fatal. Chemical contamination, with the exception of a few substances such as cyanide and nitrate, tends to represent a more long-term health risk.
An example of this is nitrate which can cause methaemoglobinaemenia in babies. Substances in water which affect the clarity, colour or taste of water may make water objectionable to consumers and hence ability to recover costs. As many microorganisms are found associated with particles in water, physical contamination may also represent a health risk as it extends microbial survival. Most treatment systems are designed to remove microbiological contamination and those physical constituents which affect the acceptability or promote microorganism survival largely related to the suspended solids in the water.
A disinfectant is nearly always included in treatment plants of any size. Pinang Tunggal water treatment plant produce 227,000 cubic meter per day of treated water. The source of raw water for the plants is from the Muda Dam through the Muda River. Their main role of Pinang Tunggal water treatment plant is to inactivate any remaining bacteria as the final unit of treatment and, more importantly to provide a residual disinfectant which will kill any bacteria introduced during storage and or distribution.
Pinang Tunggal water treatment distribute treated water to North and South Sungai Petani, Gurun, Tikam Batu and Pantai Merdeka or can said all over Kuala Muda Yan. There are 8 main process for water treatment at plant which is : Intake The intake screens prevent debris from entering the treatment facility. The screens are located off the bottom of the river to avoid bringing sediments into the treatment plant and below the surface to avoid bringing oils or other floating material into the treatment plant. Aeration Aeration process involves bringing air to contact with water to transfer olatile substances from the liquid to the gaseous phase, thus increase the dissolved air in water. It will improve taste and odor and also oxidize iron and manganese. Coagulation Chemical coagulants are added to react with the remaining small particles in the water to form particles large enough to settle out. Rapid mixing distributes the coagulant evenly throughout the water. While, flocculation basins gently mix the water with large submerged paddles so smaller particles collide to form large particles called “floc”. Sedimentation
Sedimentation is physical treatment process that utilizes gravity to separated suspended solid from water. Floc settles by gravity to the bottom of a sedimentation basin. Then, clean water spills over to the filters. Filtration Filtration removes any remaining particles that carried over after sedimentation. The force of gravity moves the water through filter media usually, sand. Disinfection Chlorine adds to prevent bacterial contamination as the treated water flows through the distribution system to customers. Fluoridation Addition of fluoride to prevent dental caries and tooth decay pH Correction
Adjusted pH to be 7. 0 at the outlet of contact tank by adding lime In Pinang tunggal water treatment plant, the process of water treatment at plant start with uptake of river water which is from Muda Dam through the Muda River passed through a screen to trap the branches and large objects. Then the deep seated water with sand are sucked up by a pipe and poured to a small drain-like-connections in order to protect the sucking pump that connects to the treatment pond. At the pond, the water undergone aeration in order to oxidized the ferum, magnesium, and other metals so that it will not dissolved into the water.
Through this process, the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfate will be released into the air. Then the water went into flocculation pond. Aluminium sulfate or Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) is used to coagulate the small suspension of solids and colloidal materials. This coagulated to form Floc. Then the water that is free of floc will be channelled to sedimentation tank. The retention time is 2 hours. The water is then percolated through a bed of a fine sand to remove fine suspended solids and colloidal matter.
After filtration, the water is then neutralised with calcium hydroxide to increase the pH of the water as it was acidified before by the PAC. The water is then added with sodium silico flouride for the purpose of producing healthy teeth among the drinker. Chlorination is the next step in which chlorine is added into the water to kill residual bacteria. Tests water samples to determine acidity, color, and impurities, using colorimeter, turbidimeter, and conductivity meter. Adds chemicals such, as alum into tanks to coagulate impurities and to reduce acidity.
Records data, such as residual content of chemicals, water turbidity, and water pressure. The water then is stored in clear water tank and channelled out to the household and another pipe channeled back to them for their usage. In addition to specific process areas of a waste water treatment facility where a wide range of intrinsically safe solutions are required, the water filtration equipment and the entire waste water treatment plant itself must be monitored to protect against corrosive, dusty, dirty, and explosive atmospheres, in addition to lightning protection and purge suppression.
Pepperl+Fuchs have a wide range of protection methods that will keep the waste water treatment plant safe and operating effectively. Workers also need to know the precaution steps when handling hazardous chemical such as chlorine. Pinang tunggal water treatment plant will expand their treatment plant until Kuala Ketil if there is increase in number of population or when there is adding of new filter.