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Scratch of a Pen, 1763

Brandon Adams Scratch of a Pen, 1763 #1. Colin Calloway states that the Treaty of Paris of 1763 was one of the causes of the American Revolutionary War. Identify and define all of the terms of the treaty as discussed in the book, how those terms affected the colonists and why this treaty is seen as the beginning of the journey to the American Revolutionary War. After the Seven Years’ War was finally over Britain signed the Treaty of Paris of 1763, ultimately giving Britain an empire.

Ridding North America of there French enemies, and pushing the Indians west to make room for colonists was be a test to everyone as an enormous amount of power had been obtained in a relatively short period of time. How the citizens would deal with the new power and freedom was quite predictable considering Britain will try to govern the colonies from across the Atlantic Ocean. This will ultimately lead to the colonists breaking away from the mother country, what we know today as the American Revolution.

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Voting for political leaders, owning land, and being able to chose which religious group you and your family are a part of were just a few of the perks that colonists became accustomed to. However, their freedom did come at a hefty expense. Britain taxed the colonists for imported goods, especially on foreign products. For example the colonists were taxed 6 pence on West Indian products like sugar, rum and molasses. Yes, this tax was lowered to 3 pence to try and calm the colonists, but that was beside the point.

Colonists did anything they could do to lower or eliminate taxes, including putting their ministers out of work to save the colonists’ tax money. After the British government received word on Americans smuggling goods in and out of the country to avoid taxation the British Navy was told to clamp down on the colonists. Unfortunately, the British Army brought Yellow Fever with them, which killed many colonists, Indians, and the army itself. This angered settlers in North America especially the Native Americans who already had the colonists on thin ice due to land disputes.

The controversy over land never went away. New settlers were now farming Indian land, and Britain never took down its forts, which was on Indian Territory. These forts were supposed to be demolished after the war, but that obviously never happened. Indians did not believe land was to be owned by any man. They believed land should be shared. Now feeling pushed out of the lands they use to live on, and watching the settlers cut down trees to build ships put the two groups on edge with each other. As colonies began to enlarge, colonists began to migrate farther west.

This meant the American Empire was growing larger. Immigration from Europe to America tripled after the war and slavery quadrupled. The increased population was in direct relationship to the Colonists’ belief in full independency. Feeling independent, and wanting more freedom to have complete control over the new world would soon lead to the American Revolution. #2. Chapters 3 & 4 deal with the First War for Independence and its aftermath. Explain all of the causes of Pontiac’s Rebellion (War), the major players, and major actions taken by the different sides.

Make sure you cover the natives, the settlers and the Redcoats. Thoroughly discuss/explain the resolution of Pontiac’s Rebellion (the Royal Proclamation, Treaty of Fort Stanwix and the Treaty of Augusta and the British Indian Superintendents involved) Over time Indians had began to rely on the new white settlers. Consistent trading between the two groups of people definitely made lives easier. However, the fact that the colonists began to farm on their land, and the British Army never abandoning its forts on Indian property, after being told to do so by the Seven Nations further angered the Native Americans.

Indians who now begin to realize they are being pushed out of their own land begin to think that Britain is also planning to go to war with them considering how British traders quit supplying them with gunpowder and lead. These acts will soon lead to the rise of Ottawa’s war chief, Pontiac. After Major Gladwin snuffed out Pontiac’s first attack on Detroit, the Indians reverted to more surprising attacks. Out witting the Red Coats, Indian women lured British soldiers out of posts at Sandusky, St. Joseph. British garrisons were then murdered. Surprise attacks were a motif for the Indians.

For example, they would pretend to lose their ball while playing a game of Lacrosse in front of British posts. This led to the capture of Fort Michilimackinac and the murder of fifteen soldiers and an officer. The British then found a note on Lieutenant Francis Gordon’s body listing why Indians felt ill towards the British. Lack of trade, high prices, and British forts on Indian lands were the main grievances. With a lack of reinforcements and only Fort Pitt, Detroit, and Niagara left, the British felt pressured as they saw their empire being taken away from them.

However, Britain would not kneel down to the Native Americans. Instead, General Amherst posted a 100 pounds reward for Pontiac. Amherst was a key part of Britain’s defense against the Indians. The use of Germ warfare to wipeout the Indians from smallpox was detrimental to Indian villages that spring and summer. Finally, The Seven Nations of Canada sent the Indians an ultimatum. Either quit the fighting, or all trade would be cut off to all Indians. Trade is something the Indians had began to rely on which eventually led to Pontiac withdrawing his men, and releasing their captives.

The British were also allowed to keep the forts that they had won from the French, and were allowed to travel freely through Indian lands. Pennsylvanians understandably were still fuming with the Indians, accusing them of complicity in the ward, and calling them Canaanites (Condemned by god, and were to be destroyed). So, the “Paxton Boys” (Group of Scots-Irish farmers) began a war of their own. Believing no Indian should be able to live they killed 6 Conestoga Indians then went onto murder another 14 while in prayer. The Red Coats, probably having the worst of British roles in this ordeal were constantly put in bad positions.

First, they fought against the Indians. But now it seemed like they were the Native American’s protectors. Settlers were eager to go farther west which would definitely have fatal outcomes. The British had to constantly monitor the Appalachian Mountains, as this was the boundary to Indian land. Settlers were obviously angered by the situations considering they were being taxed to pay for the Red Coats who appeared to be siding with the Indians instead of who was paying them. Another British aid for the Indians was 26-year-old Lord Shelburne who believed westward expansion should cease as it is in the best interest of the Indians.

Lord Shelburne had The Royal Proclamation passed in just 6 days, which was remarkably fast. This Proclamation was know as the Indian’s Bill of Rights, which set the Appalachian Mountains as a definite boundary between Colonists and Indians. Crown’s representatives were the only ones who could negotiate land exchange. Although this Proclamation looked promising it would soon be altered. In 1768, Johnson had the Iroquois agree to give a substantial amount of land to the settlers. The treaty of Fort Stanwix moved the dividing line between the Indians and Colonists westward to the Ohio River Valley.

Then in 1773 after Cherokees were in great debt they ceded a vast amount of land which is part of present day Georgia. Pontiac’s Rebellion put quite the scare into all of the British people. This was a huge shock considering how small the Indians were compared to the British Empire. Yes, the Indians got some of there land given back to them through the Royal Proclamation, but the Treaties of Fort Stanwix and Augusta quickly chipped away at the colonists goal to move westward. Brandon Adams Work Cited Calloway, Colin G. The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford, England: Oxford UP, 2006. Print.


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