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Science

Science 10 Review
Bolded numbers are textbook reference pages.CHEMISTRY:
• WHMIS – Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System; symbols used to identify dangerous materials (xiii, 8)• Classifying Matter – matter is anything with mass and volume and could be either solid liquid or gas. Matter can be further divided into either a mixture or a pure substance. See page 10.• Atomic Theories –Early Chemists devised theories about the structure of an “atom”.
o Dalton’s Atomic Theory (12):
? All matter is made up of small particles called atoms
? Atoms cannot be created, destroyed or divided into smaller parts
? All atoms of the same element have the same mass but different elements have different masses
? Put two elements together and you get a compound
? Chemical reactions change the way atoms are grouped but atoms themselves do not change
? Looks like a billiard ball (solid, uniform, sphere)
o J.J. Thomson (15):
? Thought atoms might be made up of smaller particles
? Proved that negatively charged electrons were part of an atom
? Viewed atom as a “raisin bun”
o Rutherford (16):
? Using alpha particle streams showed that positively charged protons and neutral neutrons existed within an atom’s nucleus.
? A volume of empty space surrounded the nucleus
? Atomic model looks like a “solar system”
o Bohr (19):
? Thought electrons were associated with certain energy levels
Energy level Maximum # of electrons
1 2
2 8
3 8
• What element is the drawing of? ______Alo Working Model of the Atom (22):
Subatomic
particle Charge Symbol
Proton 1 + p+
Neutron 0 n0
electron 1 – e-• Nuclear Notation (22) using the periodic table –
o Atomic Number = number of protons
o Mass Number = number of protons + number of neutrons
o Number of neutrons = mass # – atomic #
? How many neutrons in magnesium? ______12• Periodic Table (25):
o Organizes elements to help us predict their properties
o Three major sections:
?…