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Role of Pharmacist

Role of Pharmacist Introduction Pharmacist deal with medicines all the time. They help to select them, also in the management of self limiting illness, and dispense them on physician’s prescription. How can the pharmacist more fully contribute to patient care? Apart from very local or national attempts in different countries to extend clinical pharmacy, not many integral co-ordinate efforts have been made by pharmacy to contribute to the patient’s well being apart from through the dispensing process. 1] The world-wide acceptance of pharmaceutical care as the mission of the pharmacy profession is shaping pharmaceutical education and practice. As a result, pharmaceutical care is adopted as the focus of good pharmacy education. [2] Obstacles that differ in practice settings and places have hampered efforts geared toward the implementation of pharmaceutical care worldwide. Some obstacles have identified include deficient clinical knowledge and communication skills, insufficient time, and negative attitudes of pharmacy practitioners. 3-4] Attitude factors may represent key obstacles in realizing pharmacists ‘contribution to society. [5] Pharmacist a health care provider Pharmacists’ professional roles and responsibilities have evolved historically from a focus on medication compounding and dispensing to extended pharmaceutical care services [6]. An increase in health demands, with a complex range of chronic medicines and poor adherence to prescribed medicines, has forced pharmacists to take a patient-centered approach [7].

The paradigm shift for pharmacy practice took turn in 1990, when Hepler and Strand introduced the term “pharmaceutical care” [8]. Over the last few decades, pharmacy organizations and academic training programs around the world have promoted pharmaceutical care as a philosophy and standard of provision of care for patients [9]. In essence, the pharmaceutical care concept has transformed the pharmacy profession to be more accountable in patient care, especially to ensure that a patient achieves positive outcomes from drug therapy [10] Role of pharmacist

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Pharmacists play a crucial role in the effective delivery of health services .pharmacists are medical experts, they are the ones who study the details and components of a drug or medicine, pharmacists are supposed to be the medication managers and counselors, who help patients achieve the optimum benefits of medication. “It is the pharmacists’ duty to check the prescription for any potential adverse drug effects and interaction, inappropriate dosing. hey should also monitor the effects of the medicine [good and bad] in individual patients, provide medical counseling to patients for various diseases and lastly provide drug information to guide the public and other health professionals,” This is a service patients have to ask their pharmacists because they are entitled to get it whenever they buy their medicines. [11] The Pharmacist in the international context Although all health care providers and the public are rationally involved in using drugs, WHO has recommended a special role for pharmacists, particularly in quality assurance and the safe and effective administration of drugs[12].

The International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) and WHO developed the concept of “The seven star pharmacist”, which stated that a well-rounded pharmacist should be a compassionate care giver, decision maker, active communicator, lifelong learner and good manager; and should possess good leadership qualities and the ability to be a teacher and researcher [13]. According to WHO, future pharmacists must possess specific knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviors in support of their roles [14, 15]. Pharmacy practice in develop countries

In any health system, it is essential that patients have access to reliable information and competent professional care. After physicians and nurses, pharmacists constitute the third largest group of health professionals. Pharmacists held about 253,000 jobs in May 2007 and employment of pharmacists is expected to grow by 22 percent between 2006 and 2016, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. [16,17] Gallup polls indicate that pharmacists consistently rate as one of the most trusted professionals. 18] They are readily accessible and members of the public see them twelve to fifteen times a year, compared with three to four visits to a physician. [19] Rate as one of the most trusted professionals. [18] They are readily accessible and members of the public see them twelve to fifteen times a year, compared with three to four visits to a physician. [19] Pharmacy practice in developing countries Pharmacy practice models in developing countries vary significantly from one country to another.

Some of the major issues identified as barriers to effective pharmacy practice models in these countries include an acute shortage of qualified pharmacists and no implementation of dispensing separation practices – especially in countries where the pharmacist is not the sole dispenser and medical practitioners are allowed to dispense as well – and a lack of standard practice guidelines. [20] Pharmaceutical services in developing countries face some specific challenges unlike those faced by pharmacists in the developed world.

In most developing countries, lack of appropriate and good-quality medicines are the most common problem encountered [9]. Irrational use of medicine and weak regulatory enforcement of drug sales are also serious issues in developing countries. For example, findings from a survey conducted in a rural region of Ghana revealed that drug retailers in five pharmacy shops were found to have little or no training in pharmacy; the population bought drugs without prescriptions; the staff of these shops contributed to drug misuse by providing misinformation about drugs and selling drugs according to popular demand [21].

Conclusion: The precise role of a pharmacist in the health setting is altering and varies significantly from country to country. In contrast to the developed world, pharmacists in developing countries are not fully executing their potential role. They are still struggling for the recognition of their role that can help improve the health care system Access to and appropriate use of medicine is among the major health sector problems in most of the developing countries. The health care system without pharmacists is unable to cope effectively with most medicine-related issues.

Thus, involvement of skillful and authoritative pharmacists in therapeutic procedures is necessary to improve appropriate use of medicines, eliminate medication errors, make proper use of the medicine budget by efficient management (to ensure maximum access) and ensure the implementation of National Essential Medicine List (NEML). References; 1. Pharmaceutical care, the future of pharmacy theory, research and practice by J. W. F. van Mil http://dissertations. ub. rug. nl/FILES/faculties/science/2000/j. w. f. van. mil/thesis. pdf 2. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). Statement on Good Pharmacy Education Practice, 1998. . American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (ASHP). Statement on pharmaceutical care. Am J HospPharm. 1993; 50:1720-1723. 4. Van Mil JWF, De Boer WO, Tromp TFJ. European barriers to the implementation of pharmaceutical care. Int J Pharm Pract. 2001; 9:163-168. 5. Knapp DA. Barriers faced by pharmacists when attempting to maximize their contribution to society. Am J Pharm Educ. 1979; 43:357-359. 6. Worley MM, Schommer JC, Brown LM, Hadsall RS, Ranelli PL, Stratton TP, Uden DL. Pharmacists’ and patients’ roles in the pharmacist-patient relationship: Are pharmacists and patients reading from the same relationship script?

Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2007; 3:47–69. doi: 10. 1016/j. sapharm. 2006. 03. 003. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 7. New tool to enhance role of pharmacists in health care http://www. who. int/mediacentre/news/new/2006/nw05/en/index. html 8. Hepler C, Strand L. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. J Hosp Pharm. 1990; 47:533–543. 9. Farris KB, Llimos FF, Benrimoj S. Pharmaceutical Care in Community Pharmacies: Practice and Research from Around the World. Ann Pharmacother. 2005; 39:1539–1541. doi: 10. 1345/aph. 1G049. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 10. Rovers JP, Currie JD, Hagel HP, McDonough RP, Sobotka JL.

A practical guide to pharmaceutical care. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association; 2003. 11. MEDICAL COUNSELORS Pharmacists crucial in effective healthcare By: Theresa S. Samaniego ,Philippine Daily Inquirer; http://business. inquirer. net/5116/pharmacists-crucial-in-effective-healthcare 12. Mil V. Pharmaceutical care the future of pharmacy. 1999. http://dissertations. ub. rug. nl/FILES/faculties/science/2000/j. w. f. van. mil/titlecon. pdf 13. SouthAfrican PC. Pharmaciae – Official publication of the South African Pharmacy Council. South African Pharmacy Council; 2007. The role of


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