However, the four leading ones are The Coachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture, The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOFU), Federal Enterprise Architecture, and Gardner Enterprise Architecture Framework. These methodologies are quite different from each other, both in goals and in approach. Many organizations use a blend of these methodologies to find a great framework for the goals they are trying to accomplish. The Enterprise Architecture framework I will be covering is Coachman Framework. I choose this framework due to it being the one all other framework are compared too.
John Coachman’s framework for information systems architecture has been idly discussed since its publication in the IBM Systems Journal in Description of Coachman Framework Coachman Framework was first introduced in 1987, and was extend in 1992. Coachman Framework was called Information System Architecture Framework in the early years (Footfall,2006). The Coachman Framework has evolved over time. Although the framework structure still remains the same, it has changed on the graphical representations to gain more generalization and logical representation.
Coachman Framework is considered to be the most referenced framework on Enterprise Architecture. Coachman Framework is always being marred with other frameworks to justify if they are correct and can be used. According to Schemata(DODD), 20 percent of Enterprise Architectures related activities are done on the Coachman Framework. The Coachman framework takes the form of a 36-cell table with six rows (scope, business model, system model, technology model, components, and working system) and six columns (who, what, when, where, why, and how)(Coachman,1999).
Rows represent different participants’ perspectives in building enterprise architecture. Columns are different ways in which we describe the same product for different purposes. Crossing each row by each column, results in a cell, which contains a unique model. This idea of rows and columns is mainly originated from the traditional architectural ideas in the area of civilization (Errata & Rather). Columns of the framework facilitate abstraction of the enterprise’s information in a way that is suitable for modeling purposes. Each column is supposed to answer a single question regarding the enterprise.
The framework has 6 different views (Perspectives). Each one of the perspectives is depicted as a row in the framework. Each perspective addresses various aspects depicted here as columns. The six perspectives(Rows) are: 1 . Planner -represents viewpoint of the group who has undertaken the business in a particular industry. 2. Owner-represents the viewpoint of the group who are business owners. 3. Designer- represents the viewpoint of the group who are systems analysts and wants to represent the business in a disciplined form. 4.
Builder- represents viewpoint of the group who implements specific technologies to solve the problems of the business 5. Us b-contractor- represents the viewpoint of the group who are hired to do certain specific tasks. 6. Enterprise- A functioning enterprise is the system itself. Once all these operations are done, the result is a functioning enterprise. The six aspects(Columns) are : 1 . What(Data )- addresses the understanding of the enterprise data. 2. How(Function)- describes various processes involved in dealing with the “Data” columns. 3. Where (Network)- describes geographic locations and logistics between the entities. . Who(People)- describes the people participating in the organizational activities. 5. When(Time) ;describes when the function should be performed. 6. Why(Motivation) – describes the end goals, constraints, rules and regulations. Example of Coachman Framework: Ross of Coachman Framework The Coachman framework is the most popular framework in the area of EAI. It is a basis for some other frameworks such as, FEB.(Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework). You can hardly find written material on any EAI framework without a reference to the Coachman framework.
The framework is generic in that it can be used to classify the descriptive representations of any physical object as well as conceptual objects such as enterprises. It is also recursive in that it can be used to analyze the architectural composition of itself. Although the framework will carry the relation from one column to the there, it is still a fundamentally structural representation of the enterprise and not a flow representation. Another of the strengths of the Coachman Framework is that it explicitly shows a comprehensive set of views that can be addressed by enterprise architecture.
Cons of Coachman Framework Coachman Framework can lead to a documentation-heavy approach.. Each of the 36 cells in the Framework handles a different question that has to be documented. It can also lead to a process heavy approach to development The Coachman Framework isn’t well accepted within the development community and few developers even seem to have even heard about it. The Coachman Framework seems to promote a top-down approach to development. When people first read about the Coachman Framework, they tend to think that it implies a top-down approach where you Start with the models in row 1, then work on row 2 models, and so on.
This doesn’t have to be the case, you can in fact start in any cell and then iterate from there. The Coachman Framework appears to be biased towards traditional, data-centric techniques. Although the Coachman Framework provides a perfect tool for classification of artifacts and delegation of responsibilities, it fails to provide NY step-by-step process for building the reference model and Enterprise Architecture. The Coachman Framework is a generic framework and does not add value to the business objectives. For businesses, cost is one of the major decision-making factors, the framework fails to address this.
The Coachman Framework also lacks the agility to handle the rapid changes happen in the Enterprise world by them going global. Examples of Coachman Framework in Use Throughout the years the Coachman framework has been use by numerous companies. The Department of Veteran affairs used the Coachman Framework to develop and maintain its One-VA Enterprise Architecture in 001. This methodology required defining all aspects of the VA enterprise from a business process, data, technical, and location, personnel, and requirements perspective.
Other companies company that used the Coachman framework is Federal Express, Johnson and Johnson, and Sprint to name a few. Department of Defense also used the Coachman framework to implement there EAI system. The United States Treasury used the Each man framework to create their own framework that supports Treasury business processes in terms of products. This framework guides the development and redesign of the business processes for various bureaus in order to meet the acquirement of recent legislation in a rapidly changing technology environment. The Coachman framework has led to numerous other frameworks coming about.
However, the framework remains the standard that everything is measured too. Conclusion The Coachman Framework provides a holistic view Of the enterprises. It provides a natural approach towards understanding the Enterprise Architecture. The Coachman framework is seen by some business managers as an ideal set of rules for the management of complex and evolving IT enterprises. While the fundamental concepts have not changed at all, faintness to its graphical representation, in addition to more precise language, embody The Framework’s history and what you see today.
The Coachman framework can be used as a valuable assessment tool to determine the quality of coverage for existing artifacts such as requirements and diagrams, as well as identify gaps in skills within a company or architecture team.. The framework continues to be the standard that every uses. You can see a part Of the Coachman framework in many Of the Other EAI frameworks out there. However, the Coachman Framework remains the standard that they are all tested against. Reference Errata, L. & Rather, V. (n. D. ). The coachman framework, the owner’s perspective & security.