Chapter 1 – Introduction Give a background of the proposed study leading to the reasons why the elected research problem is selected for investigation. Explain, in terms intelligible to the lay reader, the importance, contribution or expected utility of this research to contemporary concerns and to the scientific/artistic domain Of the field Of study.
The following criteria may be used by the proponent to determine the significance of the proposed research: Contribution to the development of theory, knowledge or practice Contribution to the advancement of methodology Importance to a wide or critical/influential population Timeliness or focus on current issues Evaluation of a specific practice Fills a research gap Originality of the research Subhead 1 (Heading 2 style) Your text here.
Subhead 2 (Heading 2 style) If you need another subhead use Heading 2 Style from the Home tabs selection. Chapter 2 ; Review of Literature Briefly discuss the literature (with proper citation) related to the proposed research. It may include formal literature in local and international publications, relevant personal communications, unpublished materials (e. G. Theses and dissertations), and other similarly verifiable sources. The review may be guided by the following: Status of the problem/topic under study
Relationship to the general and specific objectives and pertinence to the stated hypotheses Illustration of theoretical approaches to the problem’s and points out inconsistencies in results, data gaps, and methodological inadequacies Relationship to other researches in the field Chapter 3 – Materials and Methods Chapter 4 – Results and Discussion Chapter 5 – Conclusion and Recommendation Literature Cited use single spacing and a hanging indent, as shown in the examples below. Divine, P. G. , & Sherman, S. J. (1992).
Intuitive versus rational judgment and the role of stereotyping in the human condition: Kirk or Spook? Psychological Inquiry, 3(2), 153-159. Hodges, F. M. (2003). The promised planet: Alliances and struggles of the gerontocracy in American television science fiction of the asses. The Aging Male, 6(3), 175-182. James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spook- In D. Pabulum (Deed. ), Spectrum of the fantastic (up. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Websites For a passing reference to a website in text, the URL is sufficient; no reference list entry is needed.
Gussies Fink-Nettle has set up a discussion forum for newt fanciers (http:// gaffing. Liveryman. Com/). However, when you are citing a particular document or piece of information from a website, include both a reference list entry and an in-text citation. The key to creating the reference list entry is to determine the type of content on the web page. Basically, provide the following four pieces of information: Author, A. (date). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://excise The in-text citation includes the author and date (Author, date), as with any other PAPA Style citation.
When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry: Example: New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from http://news. Mines. Corn. AU/health/story_1 3178. Asp Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title: (“New Child Vaccine,” 2001 ). Note: use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation.
Articles found on the web, like the example above, are not italicized in the reference entry and are not italicized but enclosed in quotations in the in-text citation, just like a newspaper or magazine article. Reports found on he web would be italicized in the reference list, as in Publication Manual (6th deed. ) Examples 31 , 32, and 33 on up. 205-206. They WOUld also be italicized in the in-text citation, just like a book. In-Text Citations In-text citations consist of the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
If there is no author, use the title (or a short form of the title, if it is lengthy) and the year. Titles that are italicized in the reference list are italicized in text; titles that are not italicized in the reference list appear in quotation marks. If there is no date, use “n. D. ” (without quotation marks) instead. Order the citations of two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list (including citations that would otherwise shorten to et al. . Separate the citations with semicolons. Several studies (Miller, 1 999; Safeness & Mahoney, 1998) Arrange two or more works by the same authors (in the same order) by year of publication. Place in-press citations last. Give the authors’ surnames once; for each subsequent work, give only the date. Past research (Goggle, 1990, 2006, in press) Identify works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the name order) with the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth, after the year; repeat the year.
The suffixes are assigned in the reference list, where these kinds of references are ordered alphabetically by title (of the article, chapter, or complete work). Several studies (Derbyshire & Reed, AAA, Bibb, in press-a; Roth Bart, AAA, Bibb) Exception: You may separate a major citation from other citations within parentheses by inserting a phrase such as see also, before the first of the remaining citations, which should be in alphabetical order. (Minor, 2001 ; see also Adams, 1999; strands, 2007)
E-BOOks The reference list entry for a whole e-book should include elements of author, date, title (With e-reader book type in square brackets if applicable; italicize the title but not the bracketed material), and source (URL or DOI). For a chapter in an e-book, include the chapter title and page numbers (if available): Whole e-book: Author, A. (date). Title of book. Retrieved from http://excise Author, A. (date). Title of book. DOI:xxxxxxxxxxxx Chapter in an e-book: Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Deed. ), Title of book (up. Xx-xx). Retrieved from http://excise DOI:excises
If the e-book chapter does not have page numbers, omit that part of the reference. Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xx Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable]. DOI:xx If the book was read or acquired through an online library (e. G. , Google Books, Barry, Interlibrary) and not on an e-reader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference. N-Text Citations For in-text citations of paraphrased material, provide the author and date, as for any PAPA Style reference.
TO cite a direct quotation, also provide page numbers if the e-book has page numbers. If there are no page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation: a paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document; an overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section; or an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full. Interviews The citation of interviews depends on the nature of the interview.
Third-party interviews: Fifth interview is in a form that is recoverable (e. . , a recording, transcript, published Q&A), use the reference format appropriate for the source in which the interview is available. Informational interviews: If you have interviewed someone for information about your topic and that person has agreed to be identified as a source, cite the source as a personal communication (in text only): (G. Fink-Nettle, personal communication, April 5, 2011) Personal communications do not have reference list entries because they cannot be retrieved.
Interviews of research participants: No citation is needed for remarks made by participants in the research on which you’re reporting. Do not cite these as personal communications; this would breach the participants’ guarantee of confidentiality. Youth Here’s the general format for creating a reference for a video found on Youth and other video-posting websites: If both the real name of the person who posted the video and the screen name are known: Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day).
Title of video [Video file]. If only the screen name of the person who posted the video is known: Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://excise The in-text citations include the author name outside of rackets (whichever that may be) and the date. Doss A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique string of letters, numbers, and symbols assigned to a published work to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet.