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Catherine De Medici introduced into the French court the same kind of entertainments that she had known in Italy. The French professional dancers became so skilled that they began to perform publicly in theatres. The Italian choreographer Fillips Taxation created the first romantic ballet, La Sylphlike (1832), for his daughter Marie. Around the asses, as the court dances became more detailed and complicated, it became necessary to formally codify these dances to maintain consistency. In 1661 , King Louis XIV established the world’s first ballet school, the Academia Royal De Danes (Royal Academy of Dance).

The Pre-Romantic period is most noted as the origin of pointed work. The Italian dancer Marie Taxation, who was eighteen years old at the time, is generally considered to be the first ballerina to dance en pointed, balancing and moving on the ends of her toes. The period from 1830-1870 is considered the Romantic Period of classical ballet. Romantic is now used to refer to a specific style of movement that was popular during that era. Following the Romantic Period, Russian classical ballet took off in SST. Petersburg in the late asses with the choreography of Marcus Petite and his associate, Level Vivian.

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In 1926, the Royal Ballet opened in England, with Sir Frederick Gaston as the choreographer. Ballet in America began in New York City with the formation of the Ballet Theatre (presently the American Ballet Theatre) in 1 940 and the Ballet Society (presently the New York City Ballet) in 1946. Choreography. Most choreographers say that they are usually inspired by one of two things: the music or the theme. A ballet’s choreography (arrangement of dance movements) may be based on such sources as a story, a musical composition, or a painting. If a choreographer’s idea comes room a story, the dancers take the roles of the story’s characters.

If a choreographer’s idea comes from music or a painting, the dancers create a mood or image like that of the original work. Few choreographers know what they are going to do when they start to rehearse a new ballet. Dance, and in particular ballet, connects to a multitude of disciplines, spanning the curriculum. There is math in working with music, choreography and pattern of movement. There is language arts and storytelling in the performance of a work. There are history and social studies connections to be made with the satirical context in which works were created or focusing on composers and famous dancers of the past.

As you can see, the connections are there, a little research at the library or on the internet can unlock and create many activities for your classroom. In this packet, we are going to concentrate on a few areas in which physics and dance can be observed together in action, but this is only the beginning. Physics and dance represent remarkably complementary approaches to human body movement – the scientific approach of classical mechanics, and the aesthetic approach of the popular art form of dance.

People involved with dance, those having some familiarity with science, and those who might be unfamiliar with both topics can all find intriguing and challenging food for thought. The science of physics deals with motion and interaction of forces and bodies. Many classroom experiments are available in which students use a variety of manipulative to explore these forces and interactions, but they may also be explored while actively observing a ballet performance.

The origins of ballet lie in the court spectacles of the Renaissance in France and Italy, and evidence of costumes pacifically for ballet can be dated to the early fifteenth century. Illustrations from this period show the importance of masks and clothing for spectacles. Splendor at court was strongly reflected in luxuriously designed ballet costumes. Cotton and silk were mixed with flax woven into semitransparent gauze. From the beginning of the sixteenth century, public theaters were being built in Venice (1 637), Rome (1 652), Paris (1 660), Hamburg (1678), and other important cities.

Ballet spectacles were combined in these venues with processional festivities and mass rereads, as stage costumes became highly created and made from expensive materials. The basic costume for a male dancer was a tight-fitting, often brocaded curia’s, a short draped skirt and feather-decorated helmets. Female dancers wore opulently embroidered silk tunics in several layers with fringes. Important components Of the ballet dress were tightly laced, high-heeled and wedged boots for both dancers, which constituted characteristic footwear for this period.

From 1550, classical Roman dress had a strong influence on costume design: silk skirts were voluminous; positioning of necklines and waistlines ND the design of hairstyles were based on the components of everyday dress, although on the stage key details were often exaggerated. Male dancers’ dresses were influenced by Roman armor. Typical colors of ballet costumes ranged from dark copper to maroon and purple. A more detailed description of the theatrical dress in the Renaissance and Baroque periods may be found in Lincoln Keratin’s Four Centuries of Ballet (1 984, p. 34).

Ballet dancers, known for their beauty, artistry, and poise, are also serious athletes. Ballet ranks high on the list of physically demanding activities, and elite angers need to be in tip-top shape to maintain their rigorous training, rehearsal and performance schedules. Ballet requires cardiovascular endurance, strength, extreme flexibility, speed and agility, all of which boost a dancers performance quality and help prevent dance-related injury. To stay in shape, ballerinas often venture outside the dance studio where they engage in cross-training activities that supplement and enhance their regular ballet training.

Dancers who don’t train aerobically can tire prematurely during long, physically challenging pieces. Elizabeth Miner, a dancer with the San Francisco Ballet, started using an elliptical machine when she realized her aerobic capacity was low. Her lack of stamina made it difficult to focus onstage. Other dancers turn to swimming, biking, spinning or brisk walking to boost their cardiovascular strength. Physical therapists who work with dancers often advise against high-impact aerobic activities that put too much pressure on the joints.

For this reason, Marina Molar, director of physical therapy at New York City Ballet, discourages ballerinas from running. She prefers low-impact cardiac activities that are easier on the knees, ankles and hips. Low-impact activities are particularly helpful for dancers who want to maintain their heart and lung health while recovering from certain injuries. When you decide to choreograph your own ballet dances, you have complete freedom of expression for your choreography. And that’s as it should be. But artists of all kinds have found that they flourish best when they voluntarily submit to certain limitations.

The series of ballet gestures, for example, is a limitation” that somehow sets the imaginations of the great ballet choreographers free. The ideas in the following sections, culled from centuries of great choreography, give you a framework for your freedom, a vehicle for your own artistic vision. All forms of expression are valid -? but these ideas can help you get started successfully. Great choreographers almost always talk about their “vision” Of their work. Choreographers are proud Of their visions and will tell you about them until you ask them to stop.


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