J. Johnston Question 1 Assignment 2 12 September 2013 Unique number 864251 During the 1 9th and 20th centuries lead poisoning became common under industrial worker, being exposed to lead in smelting, painting, plumbing, printing, and many other industrial activities. In the 20th century exposure to the environment increased because of lead gasoline in motor vehicles.
Other than the environmental factors like, dust, soil, the use Of Old ceramic cookware, paint chips and folk remedies, that expose children to lead hazards, old toys containing lead based paint and some toys manufactures in China also contribute to the risk. Children are more open to lead poisoning than adults. Young children often place toys and other objects in their mouth, ingesting dust, soil and possibly a higher level of lead. The effects of lead poisoning are also much more aggressive, as they are rapidly growing and their systems are not fully developed.
Research has shown inverse relationship between blood-lead levels and cognitive function. Issues like lower IQ scores, hyperactivity, aggression, learning disabilities, visual- motor skills deficits, etc. The manufacturing and sale of lead-based paint has been banned in LASS since 1978. The use Of it on street paint work as well as the painting of toys. Question 2 When it comes to buying toys and apparatus for children, for inside and outside use, one should keep in mind the following safety criteria: Age 0-2: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Rattles that can’t fit in the child’s mouth Rattles/toys that have sturdy construction and won’t fall apart Squeeze toys that do not contain removable squeakers that could be a choking hazard Rattles with large, ball-like ends should not be given to babies Toys in the crib should not have strings longer than CACM to avoid entanglement Suspended toys or rib gym should be securely fastened to prevent it from being pulled into the crib 7. Large enough toys to not be a choking hazard 8. Crib mobiles should be taken out as soon as the baby begins to get up on hands and knees or turns five months old Age 3-6: 1 .
Age, interests, and developmental abilities of the child/Rene 2. Choose toys with washable and non-flammable or flame- retardant materials 3. Be sure to have good quality structures. Make sure that they are durable, stable, has no sharp corners or wires, good design and strings shorter than 12 inches 4. Avoid toys that are made Of nontoxic paints and materials 5. Avoid toys with small parts that could be swallowed and choked on. 6. Select toys and equipment that is suitable for the available play and storage space 7. Avoid toys with electrical part and those that are propelled through the air 8.
Choose toys for children that need minimal adult supervision J. Johnston Question 3 When buying apparatus for children it is important to be sure that the risk of lead poisoning is prevented. When buying toys, ask the shop keeper if the paint or materials of which it is manufactured of is lead-based and nontoxic. Be sure to educate children not to put the toys in their mouths and to wash heir hand regularly, especially before eating. Check toys regularly to be sure that paint is not chipping off or that plastic parts, that may be poisonous, cannot be ingested.
Question 4 Health and safety of young children throughout the stages of development are intertwined. A small infant is very susceptible to infections and disease because of their low immune systems. They are also very fragile because of their soft bone structures. Whereas with older children they are exposed to more infected areas and dangers in the community, motor vehicles and play areas for example. Between the ages of 2 to 4 months the infant is exposed to hazards like burns, falling, chocking, suffocating and sharp objects. These hazard appear because of the child’s ability to roll around, wiggle and to place objects in their mouths.
At the age of 4- 12 months the same hazards are still present and because the child starts to gain mobility with crawling and starting to pull themselves up against tables and chairs, they are in danger of falling down stairs, off chairs or tables and hitting their heads against various things (walls, floors, etc. ) From the age of one year old, the infants start to explore wider areas and move around endows, gates and doors. At this age children should never be left alone when around water, no matter how little. Risks of poisoning also increases as they place all objects and their hands in their mouths.
Burning on stoves, heaters and floor furnaces. Supervision of children is essential inside and outside of the house. Children between and 3 years old are fascinated by fire, runs around constantly, is impatient with restraint and tries to do things on their own. They also explore and imitate. Playing with other children can open opportunity for injuries with hard objects. Because of their incredible ability they are in danger of traffic. Children should never be allowed to play in streets, driveways or around vehicles. Poisoning and dangerous substances like medicine and cleaning product need to be kept in mind.
Toddler of 3 to 6 years old are in danger of poisons and burns, drowning and traffic, injuries caused by rough play, and playing with dangerous tools and equipment. Climbing onto objects create a risk of falling and extensive injuries such as bone fractures. Pre-schooled between 6 and 10 years old are exposed to more physical injuries caused by sports and activities like swimming. Also hey are exposed to their curiosity around unknown items like firearms and weapons. Traffic stays a danger as older children are learning to ride bicycles and walking to schools, etc. Gradually teaching replaces adult supervision.
J. Johnston Question 5 Education of illness- prevention among young children are very important. By creating awareness and teaching good hygiene habits, contribute greatly to preventing infections and spreading of disease. Method of infecting Air Birth to 3 years Small infants up to 18 months are unable to practice putting their hands in front of their mouths when coughing or sneezing, but they do see ND imitate it from months and older. Always clean child’s hands after changing diapers or using the “potty”. When “bootstrapping” the toddler has to be taught to wash his/her hands after being in the bathroom.
Babies and infants enjoy touching other and exploring with their hands. While crawling they pick up lots of germs from the floor and other surfaces. It is important to clean their hands regularly and to avoid them putting their dirty hands in their mouths. Infants and toddlers are unaware of the dangers of bloodthirstiness diseases, but by making them aware of the “grossness” Of the act, it could prevent them from doing so. To 6 years Adults should always remind and set an example of putting their hands in front of their mouths when sneezing or coughing.