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Research paper on environmental project

A Recommendation Report: Reducing Water Waste in Bilking University Dormitories by Renovating Faucets and Flushes and Increasing Awareness about Water Waste American Tattoos 21002448 Instructor: Marlene Denied Lowell ENG 401-001 TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Abstract……… -? 4 introduction ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Problem Definition. A. Manuel 5 B. Manuel …. 5 C. Students who are unaware of Water Consumption .. 6 Ill. Proposed Solutions A. Automatic B. Automatic Flushes…………. 7 C. Water Consumption Awareness 7 IV.

Criteria for Assessing Solutions 8. Sustainability…….. -? C. Applicability….. D. Effectiveness……. -? 8 V Methodology A. Online Research…… Interpretation and VI’. Conclusion and Appendix . Appendix Referee cues.. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; LIST OF FIGURES . 12 Evil. Appendices. 17 VI II. Figure 1 – Comparison between total costs of proposed solutions normal … 9 Figure 2 – Comparison between automatic (sensor) and … 1 1 Figure 3 – Comparison between water usage of manual and automatic flushes…… -? . 2 Figure 4 – Success rates of the proposed solutions according to the conclusion 13 ABSTRACT Global warming, developing technologies and expanding population result in scarce natural resources and one of them is water springs. In Bilking University Dormitories the amount of wasted water is high due to several reasons: Manual faucets, manual flush toilets and the students who are unaware of the problem. This study aims to find feasible solutions for the stated problem. Research shows that the manual faucets can be replaced with the automatic ones. Manual flushes can be also replaced with the automatic ones.

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In addition, to increase the awareness about the wasted eater in dormitories, water consumption awareness posters can be used. Possible solutions are evaluated according to their costs, durability, applicability and effectiveness. Surveys show that the students who reside in Bilking University Dormitories, want the dormitories to be renovated, 64% of them states that the faucets should be replaced with the automatic ones. However, only 35% of the residents want automatic flush toilets to be installed. The prices of automatic faucets start from $29. 5 and this price results in a total cost of 522. 762 For the automatic flushes the prices start from $39. 5 and the total cost of installation of flushes to dormitories is $23. 970 [3]. Since the sensors of touchlines faucets and flushes include solenoid valves, the sensors are very fragile. Therefore the durability of automatic faucets and flushes are not as good as the manual ones. In addition, the fragility of the sensors causes the maintenance costs to increase. However, the total cost of hanging the awareness posters to the dormitory walls only goes up to $2. 92 and the durability of the posters are relatively better than both faucets and flushes All of the three proposed solutions are applicable since they are already in SE in many areas. Automatic faucets save up to 70% of the wasted water when used properly Automatic faucets and automatic flush toilets are used in shopping centers, hotels and airports whereas the awareness posters are used in order to advertisement and information manners. In conclusion, all proposed solutions are feasible but each Of them fails to satisfy at least one of the criteria.

However, awareness posters are the one with the gold medal since it only fails to be as effective as manual faucets. This study recommends the application of water consumption awareness esters and a pilot project dormitory in order to test the possible solutions and to observe the advantages and disadvantages of the applied system. I. INTRODUCTION The most significant problem of today’s world is scarce resources. As we increase the number of structures and factories, the world’s natural resources are rapidly diminishing.

Water is probably the most important natural resource for human beings because water is the main and most basic need of human life. Additionally, water is widely used in many activities. Due to wrong practices in water usage, the number of clean water springs is continuously decreasing. Therefore, we should be more careful in water usage at present more than ever. More than 12,000 students study at Bilking University and more than 3,000 of them reside in the Bilking University dormitories. Although Bilking University is concerned about the environment, the waste of water is very high due to the use of manual sinks, taps and flushes.

This proposal offers two viable and feasible solutions which consist of replacing the manual flushes and faucets with the automated ones for the water waste in Bilking University Dormitories. II. PROBLEM DEFINITION There might be several reasons for water waste. Sinks and flushes are mainly used by the students. In the dormitories, the main reason for the water waste is the manual faucets and flushes. A. Manual Faucets Most of the Bilking University dormitories are more than twenty years old and most Of the dormitories have not been renovated. Therefore, in the toilets and kitchens there are still manual sinks and taps in use.

According to the survey with 12 people from 72nd dormitory, residents of the dormitory always encounter with left open faucets also they state that because of the oldness of the faucets they are constantly leaking water. Leaking faucets sates up to one liter of water with 4,000 drips Individuals can easily leave the faucets open. Additionally, since the water pressure is manually adjusted, one can easily use water unnecessarily during usage. If Bilking decides to replace the faucets with the new ones, water consumption would decrease up to 70%. B. Manual Flushes One standard toilet flush tank contains 4-5 liters of water.

As Don Duncan States on a regular basis, chances are you are dumping up to 22 liters Of drinkable water every day [7]. It means that only one pull of the lavatory flush releases two times the daily water need of an adult. The process of assonating water also leaves a huge carbon footprint One of the main reasons for water waste in Bilking University dormitories is manual flushes. Firstly, some manual flushes still use a pulling mechanism in order to release the needed water. However, some flushes have their pull rods stuck. It causes a continuous release of water until the rod is relieved.

Consequently, old fashioned flushes breed a substantial amount of water waste. In addition, manual lavatory flushes sometimes have low water pressure. Therefore, sometimes individuals need to pull the flush more than once. Replacement or he repair of the flushes may decrease the water waste in Bilking University Dormitories. C. Students who are Unaware of the Water Consumption Problem Although the amount of wasted water is mostly caused by the use of wrong devices in the dormitories, a significant amount of water may be wasted because of the wrong use of sinks, taps and flushes.

Awareness is one of the most profound aims of the environmental projects and by increasing awareness of the society may significantly affect the result of environmental studies. In Bilking university Dormitories, there is not any suggestive material which informs the dents about environmental problems. This may lead the students who are unaware of the water scarcity to extravagantly use world’s natural resources. Consequently, the seriousness of the water consumption problem may increase over time. Therefore, by increasing the awareness of the residents of Bilking university Dormitories the amount of wasted water can be reduced. Ill.

PROPOSED SOLUTIONS In total, two solutions can be proposed to solve the water waste in Bilking University dormitories: A. Automatic Faucets Automatic faucets are equipped with a motion detector which detects the and nearby and allows water to flow and it stops the water flow when the detector is unable to detect any presence. Automatic faucets are mainly used in airports, hotels and shopping centers in order to prevent the water waste. It is claimed that the sensor taps save up to 70% of the water and on average even if the automatic faucets are relatively more expensive than the regular ones; the payback period is about 3-6 months [5].

Automatic faucets can be easily installed to the toilets in the dormitories which Will prevent the faucets to be left open and decrease the amount of water used during daily usage. B. Automatic Flushes The widely used flush toilet has remained about the same since its invention in 1596 [7]. However, many things have changed since 1596, world’s population increased and water has become scarcer. Since lavatory flushes are using a lot of water, they should be replaced with the new ones. There are plenty of options on the market for the automatic flushes which use a motion detector.

The automatic flushes automatically releases the water from the tank and since they have an improved technology, their water pressure is fixed and enough. They also offer a more hygienic environment for the dents. Therefore automatic flushes both propose a better condition for the toilets and prevents the water from to be wasted. C. Water Consumption Awareness Posters Posters and banners are commonly used for advertisements. They aim to manipulate minds of masses for companies’ commercial benefits. However, they also can be used for the issues deal with environment.

Decently designed posters may help to raise the public awareness of the people. In Bilking university Dormitories, the posters can be used in order to inform the students about the water consumption problem. They may encourage the dents to be more careful and conscious about the problem. The posters may give brief advice about the issue and how to solve it. Water consumption awareness posters can be hanged to the walls of the toilets located in dorm Tories. Lb. CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING SOLUTIONS The criteria for assessing solutions are: A.

Cost: The cost of the proposed solutions includes price of the system itself, maintenance and the cost of installation. The price of automatic faucets changes between $29. 95 and $418. 12 and prices of automatic flusher differentiates between $39. 95 and $220. 95. However, the systems will get heir payback in a short period of time. The most cost efficient one should be chosen. B. Sustainability: The proposed systems are in the market for years, they are very commonly used and the technology is not new. Therefore there is no doubt for the sustainability of the proposed solutions.

However, the solutions will be evaluated according to their sustainability. C. Applicability: The suggested solutions should be applicable. In other words, the systems should be viable and easily installable. Applicability of the systems will be determined according to the research and surveys. The most viable and applicable system will be chosen. D. Effectiveness: The suggested systems should be evaluated according to their effectiveness. According to the measurements, observations and research effectiveness of proposed systems will be evaluated. Hence, the systems should be chosen according to their environmental benefits.

V. METHODOLOGY A. Online Research: 1 . Automatic Faucets and Flushes: Online research on prices of automatic faucets was done in order to compare the prices of the products, and calculate the total cost of the application of proposed solutions. Written articles were used to study durability, applicability and effectiveness of the automatic faucets. Online articles gave us the ability to totally understand the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed solutions. 2. Water Consumption Awareness Posters: There are plenty of websites which offer decently designed posters about environmental issues.

The online research also helped the study to see the prices of different environmental posters. The posters with decent designs can be purchased directly from the website, or the designs can be used as an inspiration object for the future designs would be made by Bilking University students. Three example water consumption awareness poster designs can be found in the Appendix C. B. Surveys: 1 . Automatic Faucets and Flushes: Surveys were conducted in order to understand the students’ opinions about the water consumption problem and thoughts about possible solutions.

Survey questions and results can be found in Appendix B. C. Interviews: 1 . Automatic Faucets and Flushes: An Interview has been made with Salami Dados who is the manager of 71st, 72nd, 73rd and 74th dormitories in Bilking university. The interview was made to understand Bilking University Dormitories Management’s tendency about water consumption problem. The Interview questions can be found in Appendix A. INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS A. Cost: Automatic Faucets: Touchlines faucets have been on the market for years.

Consequently, there are plenty of manufacturers which offer the products with diverse options. This study aims to find the most cost efficient choices in order to satisfy the budget constraints. Research on the prices of the automatic faucets shows that the prices start from $29. 95 and go up to $418. 12 [2]. Since there are 21 dormitories in Bilking university the total cost includes the renovation of each faucet. Even if we choose the option with the lowest price, the total price of installation of all automatic faucets to the armory toilets becomes 322. 462.

Automatic Flushes: Touchlines toilet flusher are not as widely used as automatic faucets. However, there are still many manufacturers which offer different options with different prices. The total cost includes the installation of -600 flushes. The prices of the automatic flushes differ between $39. 95 and 5295. 00 The total cost of integrating automatic flushes to the toilets located in dormitories sums up in $23. 970. Water Consumption Awareness Posters: Posters are widely used for information and advertising manners. The posters draw attention and gives brief information about the subject.

The prices of posters can be reduced by creating it from scratch, however purchasing posters which are professionally made specifically for the water consumption. The price of the chosen posters is $7. 75 and it results in a cost of 52092. 5 [4]. B. Sustainability: Automatic Faucets: Automatic faucets operate with Sensors which allow them to detect the motion in front of the sensor. The essential component of that sensor which allows the water to drain is solenoid valves. Solenoid valves are highly fragile They also use batteries which has a short run time.

Therefore automatic faucets require maintenance frequently. Automatic Flushes: Automatic flushes also operate with same technology as automatic faucets. They use solenoid valves which allow the water to be released. Automatic flushes are not used as widely as the automatic faucets. Water Consumption Awareness Posters: Posters are widely used in many areas. They are already in use everywhere around the Bilking University Campus. The sustainability of the posters can be determined by observations. The posters are durable but they can be easily damaged.

On the other hand, they can be easily renewed and posters do not require any maintenance. C. Applicability: Automatic Faucets: According to Salami Dados, Bilking university dormitories will be renovated starting from the 50th dormitory [9]. This renovation will include the reconstruction of the dormitories. Therefore all of the toilets will be constructed from scratch. It appears that automatic faucets can be considered as an alternative to the manual faucets. Since the installation procedure is not different than the regular ones, there is no concern for the applicability of the automatic faucets.

Automatic Flushes: During the reconstruction Of the dormitories, flush toilets will be renovated as well as the faucets. However, Salami Dados claims that the dormitory management would not consider the automatic flush toilets as an alternative for the new dormitories. He believes that the dormitories management would not consider the automatic flushes as an alternative because they require frequent maintenance. Water Consumption Awareness Posters: Posters are used in dormitories in order to inform students about the campaigns for commercial reasons and the student unions activities.

The posters can be used to increase the awareness about environmental issues. The use of posters to increase the awareness about the environmental issues is moon in the world. In order to make the students more aware of this problem, the posters can be hanged to the dormitory toilets which will remind the students that they should not waste the water when using the sinks and flushes. D. Effectiveness: Automatic Faucets: Research show that even though the initial cost of installing automatic faucets is relatively high the payback of the automatic faucets is immediate.

As we can see from the graph that is obtained by the online research, the long-term cost of the sensor taps are lower than the normal (manual) faucets due to the fact that sensor taps are saving a big mount of water. Figure 2 – Comparison between automatic (sensor) and normal taps Automatic Flushes: The effectiveness of the automatic flushes is relatively lower than the automatic faucets because they offer only a lower amount of water usage during one flush. The leakage can be eliminated through the improved technology of the automatic flushes.

However, they cannot be considered as effective as automatic faucets. Figure 3 – Comparison between water usage of manual and automatic flushes Water Consumption Awareness posters: The effectiveness Of the awareness posters cannot be calculated or valuated directly. The effectiveness can be obtained only by applying the solution to the dormitories and observing the results. However, it can be said that the effectiveness of the posters are relatively lower than the automatic devices. Since the posters can only increase the awareness, they cannot directly affect the water consumption.

CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATION A. Conclusion According to the analysis, the following results are obtained: Automatic Faucets: The cost is -?$22. 462 which cannot be considered feasible The offered solution seems to be sustainable, however the durability is not as gig as awareness posters The solution is applicable The solution is the most effective and feasible solution among the others Automatic Flushes: The cost is -?$23,970 which cannot be considered feasible The solution is effective, however the benefits are not enough to compensate its costs Water Consumption Awareness Posters: The total cost is -$2092. Which can be considered feasible and this solution is the most cost efficient one The offered solution is durable, therefore sustainable The solution is applicable The solution cannot directly solve the problem, however its effects can be en during the application of the solution Figure 4 – Success rates of the proposed solutions according to the conclusion B. Recommendation As a result of the study, points are given to the proposed solutions.

The Figure 4 shows the success rates of the proposed solutions according to the criteria. According to the conclusion, awareness posters only fail to be successful in effectiveness. As a result this study recommends the awareness posters to be applied and a pilot project for automatic faucets in a chosen dormitory which will enable us to see the benefits of the system. By observation, we can understand the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed solution.


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