This report will also examine the systems theory which views psychological problems as stemming from internal environmental factors combined with inter-generational family systems. According to Hook and Worthington (2009), 82% of American adults identify themselves as Christian, and most adults are married or in a committed couple relationship. Therefore, the current decline of married couples along with the influx of divorces may be attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding family systems theory, spiritual foundations for marriage, and family therapy benefits.
During the last three decades America has witnessed diverse changes to the definition of marriage, and the family structure has been evolving simultaneously. In the book titled The Popular Encyclopedia of Christian Counseling (Clinton & Hawkins, 2011) marriage is described as ;?our most treasured human relationship. ?0 The institution of marriage is recognized by the United States Constitution as a civil right, and the freedom to marry was formerly established as one Of the individual rights which are a component established for each citizen.
Our nation?was originators declared that citizens under the U. S. Government would be guaranteed ?ascertain unalienable rights bestowed upon them by their Creator;?D as they pursue happiness (Hall, 1 980, up. 365-366). However, opponents of the traditional model of marriage are locked in a battle over the redefinition of marriage from ?the union of a man and a woman to the union of any two persons?D (Stewart, 2008). Nevertheless, in stark contrast to 1960 when it was reported that 72 percent of persons 1 8 or older were listed as married, today less than 51 percent of persons in the U.
S. Are claiming marital status (Cohn, Passel, Wang, & Livingston, 2011). The Pew Report (2010) defines married persons as, ;?married adults ages 18 and older with spouse present or absent excluding separated couples. ?; Another trend which has en reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2010) is the divorce rate which is 50 percent for both Christian and secular marriages. Moreover, the family is defined as, ?cachet basic unit in society traditionally consisting of two parents rearing their children;?CLC (Merriam-Webster, 2011).
In contrast, the contemporary psychotherapist compartmentalizes the family from a systems perspective and in turn focuses upon the human condition and views this family dynamic as a unit (Clinton & Hawkins, 201 1). The current definition of family (I. E. Nuclear or extended) filtered through the eyes f the family systems theory is, ?as a family system which functions because it is a unit, and every family member plays a critical, if not unique role in the system?L] (The American Heritage Medical Dictionary, 2007).
Formerly, families were seen as a group of independent agents that are linked by their membership in the family and each member;sees behavior may be unconnected and apart from other family members (Clinton & Hawkins, 201 1). According to Clinton & Hawkins (p. 125) under the framework of the systems theory the rate of therapeutic intervention increases when the effects of systemic factors are incorporated instead of scarred to promote change. Premise Of Marriage The current sanctity of marriage and family is based upon the traditional view that this union is solely for a man and a women under the umbrella of ;?Holy Matrimony. Ґ? However, it is apparent that constitutional norms are in danger of being overturned due to public policy that seeks to classify gender as irrelevant. The confusion and conflict that has arisen over the traditional premises of marriage which are based upon constitutional law has arisen because appellate court administrators have failed in upholding the established rule of law (Stewart, p. 15, 2008). Secondly, the legal system did not feel it necessary to legislate marriage by limiting the union to a man and a woman.
But just over the horizon is the term, ;?caption of any two persons,;?CA looming at America;?was door step. According to Cede (2010), there is a movement by some religious groups, and State legislatures to undergrad the institution Of marriage by classifying the institution as a ?covenant. ?C The overall premise of covenant marriage is the idea that marriage extends the concept of the marriage contract by legally deeming it a lifelong commitment. The commitment contract is inclusive of a supportive community which in turn is upheld by evangelical Christians.
In lieu of the raging debate to abolish legal marriage altogether it is estimated that all relationships including traditional and alternative relationships evolve and undergo some form of conflict, anxiety, guilt, depression, anger, low tolerance, and emotional turbulence. The psychotherapeutic process is useful in giving individuals, couples, families a method of self-observation and self-assessment tools to alleviate the impact of the afore mentioned problems (Clinton & Leaseholder, G. 2002).
There is myriad of licensed professional marriage and family therapists, professional counselors, mental health professionals who are sworn to abide by the rule of ethics, ;?cede no harm?C (American Psychological Association). Impact of Marriage upon Family Structures The Bible states that the origin of the family is God centered and attributable to His design for creation. According to Sternberg, and Jones (2004), the Bible also addresses an entire range of issues connected to marriage, and family-extended subjects such as human sexuality, gender, reproduction, parenthood, and more.
This record states that He ?created them in His own image and made them male and female;?n (Genesis 1:27). Furthermore, the first family?was creator admonished the couple to ?be fruitful and to multiply?C] (Genesis 1:27-28). As Clinton & Leaseholder (201 1), stated that subscribers of psychotherapy must be made aware that God created us with a healthy reflective nature of sensualists and erotic inclinations. Thus it is the parent(s) or caregivers responsibility to train offspring how to harness sexual desires.
Social and religious conservatives re sounding the alarm regarding the decline of marriage and the influx of normality families (Scott, p. 537, 2007). In spite Of all Of the conflict and debate marriage has retained its traditional influence upon the family structure. Gay marriage advocates argue that the influence of the traditional family roles is outdated and biased due to its patriarchal nature along with its values that exclude diversity (Scott).
Furthermore, advocates for implementing an alternative family structure contend that the traditional family structure is rooted in historical traditions and want to replace it with a ambiance of the positive attributes of marriage (Scott, p. 538). The traditional setting of marriage and family structure was for the procreation and child cultivation of its members. According to Molder (2007), ;?spoor the first time in its history, Western civilization is confronted with the need to define the meaning of the terms ;? -marriage;?w and ;?-family;?n.
According to Goldenberg and Goldenberg (1985), family is described as a natural social System unique with properties all its own, inclusive Of a set Of rules, roles, power structure, communication patterns, and ways of regulation ND problem solving. According to Clinton & Leaseholder, (2010) the two parent family with biological children all living together is becoming almost non-existent in America. The trend is moving towards single-parent blended multidimensional systems along with other types found in America (Clinton, 519).
If one takes the position that life is the design of a creator, then humanity must recognize its godly parentage and ancestry. By accepting this sobering truth marriage partners, couples and family members must give credence to the fallen nature of man (I. E. Humanity) as a preexisting condition. According o Skedaddle (2011 the first task of a Christian counselor during the initial assessment is to determine which nature (I. E. Spiritual or carnal) predominates in a life (Romans 8:6-8).
Professional Ethics The professional practice of couples and family therapy is controlled by state laws, professional specialty guidelines, ethics codes, peer review, continuing education, managed care and consultation (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2000). The practitioner must remain abreast of their primary duty when servicing clients by striving to ?do no harm,;?C and by following ethical and legal practice at all times (Corey & Callahan, p. 80, 201 1).
The practice of family therapy codices were developed by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (2001) for the purpose of advancing the welfare of families and individuals. The MAMBA devised ethical standards based upon a framework for many ethical issues that practitioners will encounter during practice as follows: (1 ) Responsibility to clients; (2) Confidentiality; (3) Professional competence and integrity; (4) Responsibility to students and supervises; (5) Responsibility to research participants; (6) Responsibility to the profession; (7) Financial arrangements; and (8) advertising (Corey & Callahan, 201 1).
Couples and Family Therapy The practice Of helping couples and family during therapy is derived from systems therapy (Corey & Callahan, 201 1). The basic premise of the systems theory is that psychological problems are viewed as stemming from the individual;?was present environment and the inter-generational family system (Corey). According to Corey and Callahan (2011), the dysfunctional symptoms of problem behavior are traceable to the inherited blueprint of families, and may very well be an outcome how the system functions.
Furthermore, Corey et al. Dated that the family systems approach is predicated upon the following behavioral assumptions: (1) the client;sees problem behavior may serve a purpose or function for the family, (2) be a malfunction which impedes family efficiency, (3) the behavior may be a symptom of dysfunctional family patterns passed down from prior generations.
Other psychological therapeutic approaches that have been used successfully in couples and family therapy are; Bowen;?ms multidimensional family therapy model, Satire?”g’s human validation process model, and Whitaker?Tm’s experiential approach, structural family therapy, strategic Emily therapy, and social construction models of family therapy (Corey, 2001). Christian Couple Counseling As stated previously in the discussion one of the contributing factors for a spiraling divorce rate may be the loss of a biblical understanding of marriage and family especially among Christians (Sternberg & Jones, 2004, p. 9). Also, at this current time Christian counselors cannot refer to one specific diagnostic framework. However, according to Clinton et al. (Clinton & Leaseholder, 2002) there are four types of marital interventions specifically tailored for Christians as follows; (1 ) preparation for marriage; (2) marriage enrichment; (3) church and community-based interventions, inclusive of Christian education for marriage, marriage mentoring, and lay marriage counseling and (4) marital therapy.
Practitioners in the counseling profession will encounter couples, individuals and families from diverse cultural traditions and values in contrast to their own. According to Corey & Callahan (201 1), whenever there is a cultural difference counseling professionals should acquaint themselves to the manner that clients approach the counseling session. The key is to avoid counterinsurgency which simply is a desire to please the client through improvise of personal values. Clinton and Hawkins (2011 ), advice is when dealing with culturally diverse clients is to use direct, and active interventions by way of self-disclosure.
Dilled (2011) promotes the idea of the professional addressing culturally diverse clients with cultural competence. ?Guttural competence is the ability to provide helping services cross-culturally?o (p. 32). The intervention program model that is considered by professionals as scientifically sound and empirically based is The Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) which was authored by Marksman, et al. (1993). The authors Of PREP have utilized three classifications applied to levels Of marital distress: (1) primary, (2) secondary, and tertiary (Heeler & Nonhuman, 1977).
The most common classification utilized for marital distress is psychotherapy or tertiary prevention. The program was designed by the authors with the purpose of promoting better marriages and can be implemented by pastors, practitioners, and counselors alike. The program consists of two formats, extended and regular session intervention. Couples are expected to work with a communication consultant for weekly sessions lasting from 2 to 2 hours with groups of 4 to 8 couples. The sessions focus on enhancing communication skills or addressing relationship issues.
The value of this program model is that each couple is assigned a consultant who acts as a coach to provide constructive feedback. The PREP program was designed to teach premarital couples the skills and best practices for marital success. Also, the program is flexible enough to be incorporated into a premarital counseling format for clergy professionals (Irenic, Plumber, Marksman, & Howard, 1992, p. 141). Another intervention program is the Marriage Enrichment model which was designed to promote better relationships for couples that experience a aroma relationship.
According to Clinton & Leaseholder (2002), the targeted population consists of the following; (1 ) couples that function well, (2) couples with an average number of problems, and (3) couples with substantial (I. E. Early stage) problems. Research on marriage enrichment conducted by High (2000) found that couples receiving marriage enrichment improved considerably across a broad spectrum of programs. A well-known enrichment program developed by Worthington et al. (1997) called ?cope Focused Relationship Enhancement,;?D is highly esteemed due to its uniformity with theological principals.
Hope focused relationship enhancement is highly recommend by Christian therapists as a way to rescue at-risk marital relationships. The strengths of HEIFER are as follows: (1) Hope for the relationship is maximized through initial written feedback; (2) HEIFER utilizes a strategy inclusive of love, work, and faith; (3) The enhancement of love by practicing valuing through STEPS intervention; and (4) Breaking negative exchange cycles by utilizing valuing during conflict. The pastoral counseling which is utilized by church and community based marital interventions is the most prevalent form of intervention among helping professionals.
Although pastors do more counseling than other professionals there is a lack of empirical data to substantiate its efficacy. According to Clinton et al. Though many parishioners prefer pastoral based enrichment counseling there is no data to validate professional practice. Serving Children who are the Product of Divorce Due to the high influx rates of divorce child therapy is relied upon and currently is in great demand. According to Karen Horned (201 1), it is theorized that all children need to feel safe and secure in their environments, but these can only be gained through the love and affection of parents.
A child that feels neglected, dominated, rejected, may lead to basic hostility towards their parents. Theorists estimate that the trauma and impact of divorce affect preadolescence children to a greater degree than adolescents and teenagers. Therefore, children under such conditions can benefit from counseling intervention. Furthermore, the effects of divorce can be traumatic for preteens, and the myth that, ;?kicked will simply snap out of it;?0 are utterly false.
When counseling children it is of utmost importance that the practitioner becomes familiar with laws that deal with minors and adolescents governing their particular state (Barnett, Hillary, & Lowery, 2001). Parents and legal caregivers under some circumstances are entitled to general information from the counselor in regards to progress, without allowing access to a records review (Corey, and Callahan, 2011). Also, informed consent of parents or guardians may not be required in cases where the minor is as follows: seeking counseling for dangerous drugs or narcotics, sexually transmitted disease, pregnancy, birth control, or sexual assault.
School counselors are not required to obtain parental consent unless it is a state requirement. The current practice is to call upon a child therapist to conduct a custody evaluation. The question that ultimately affects the stability of the child is, ;?cheat is the best interest of the child? ;?0 (Clinton & Leaseholder, 2002). Another critical issue that frequently arises in counseling children is the conflict between legal and ethical standards (Corey & Callahan, 201 1). In such matters it is prudent for practitioners to seek the advice and guidance from other trained professionals or supervisors (p. 1 1).
Marginal (1982) reminds therapists that legal obligations to clients sometimes quire them to place the welfare of a child over that of a familial relationship. Comparison: Secular vs.. Christian Counseling The secular counseling organization is regulated by the American Counseling Association (CA). This organization was established to serve clients by enhancing human development principles throughout the client;?was existence. A cross cultural approach is utilized to support the worth, dignity, potential, and uniqueness of people from a cultural interpersonal, and interpersonal approach from a perspective garnered from five main purposes.
Both counseling organizations have some similarities due o similar instances occurring when servicing clients. However, the primary difference is that the ACE adopts a Christian worldview perspective whereas the CA does not incorporate spirituality in practice. At the onset it is evident that Christian counselors lack the benefit of referring to a standard diagnostic framework (e. G. ADSM-V). According to Skedaddle (2011), the Christian is left with a situation where there is sufficient spiritual assessment and a host of credible biblical interventions but no means of problem formulation leading to a diagnosis (p. ). However, Christian counseling has grown to international proportions and services a host Of clients from a unique worldview perspective. Christian counseling is regulated by the American Association of Christian Counselors, (2004). Clinton and Hawkins (2011) stated that the goal of Christian counseling is to help persons deal with tragic losses, illness, conflicts, and mental disorders. The ultimate overarching goal is to help clients adopt a lifestyle that is Christ centered and develop intimate relationship with both God and humanity (Crab, 1977).
Areas for Improvement The ACE must continue to strive to implement a diagnostic framework for the treatment of spiritual conditions. In order to improve Christian counseling according to Clinton and Leaseholder (2002), the Christian counseling profession must provide direction, empirical support, and enhance theories that are marked differences from secular counseling approaches. Also, the body Of literary professional literature must increase to meet the challenges of family and couples counseling (Clinton et al. However, in the book Caring for People God;?was Way (Clinton, Hart, & Leaseholder, 2005) the authors have outlined seven steps to recovery that are utilized by Christian practitioner?was today (Clinton & Hawkins, 2011). In order for Christian counselors to become more viable as ?salt and light,?O in the world, Worthington et al. (1996), stated the proponents of Christian therapy must work to integrate theology and psychology. Conclusion The family is the social system that all societies refer to for the replacement of its members (International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 1968).
In a broader sense, family is defined more liberally as consisting of persons inhabiting a common dwelling unit which may or may not be related. Historically, as previously stated marriage has been intertwined with the benefiting of family which meant the cohabitation of a man and a woman in a monogamous relationship (Martins, 1960). However, many civil rights groups are joining forces to dismantle the current definition of marriage and amend it to be more inclusive of homogeneous and heterogamous relationships.
The social environment and its interactive relationships such as one;?Tm’s family, culture, neighborhood, ethnicity, community, church, and gender dynamics will continue to pose challenges for individuals. Nevertheless, the fact of the matter still remains; married couples, individuals, ND diverse family structures will require implementation of psychological therapeutic intervention models. In spite of the current decline of married couples, the influx of divorce and persons opting for alternative lifestyles there will still be a demand for human service professionals.