Write a report and attach lesson plan, feedback and photographs of the Aurelia used. INTRODUCTION In education, Aurelia (pronunciation reel-e-ah) are objects from real life used in classroom instruction by educators to improve students’ understanding of there cultures and real life situations. A teacher of a foreign language often employs Aurelia to strengthen students’ associations between words for everyday objects and the objects themselves.
In many cases, these objects are part of an instructional kit which includes a manual and is thus considered as being part of a documentary whole by librarians. Aurelia are also used to connect learners with the key focal point of a lesson by allowing tactile and multidimensional connection between learned material and the object of the lesson. They are best utilized for simple objects lending homeless to classroom settings and ease of control with minimum risk of accident throughout the student object interaction.
Tech oenology has begun to impact the use of Aurelia by adding the virtual Aurelia option, whereby three- dimensional models can be displayed through projection or on computer screens, allowing the learner to see detail otherwise difficult to acquire and to manipulate the object within the medium on which it is displayed. The option of zooming and looking within objects makes virtual Aurelia an important learning tool in technical environments where it may be difficult or impractical to examine an object in as much detail manually, such as the workings of living organs or machinery containing hazardous parts, such as combustion engines.
A/ WHAT IS MOTIVATION? The word “motivation” is typically defined as the forces that account for the arousal, selection, direction, and continuation of behavior. Actually, it is often used to describe certain sorts of behavior. A student who studies hard and tries for top grades may be described as being “highly motivated”, while his/her friend may say that he is “finding it hard to get motivated”. Such statements imply that motivation has a major influence on our behavior.
Motivation can be defined as a concept used to describe the factors within an individual which arouse, maintain and channel behavior towards a goal. Another way to say this is that motivation is goal-directed behavior. B/ Motivation in the SSL/FEEL Classroom Motivation has long been a major problem for most teachers of English as a Second Language (SSL) or as a foreign language not only in the Arab World but also elsewhere. Motivation in the SSL/FEEL classroom is easily one of the most important factors as I’m sure most teachers would agree with me.
The main reason I’m coming to this point of view is that most of our students have owe motivation to learn English. In addition to that, while most of them have a vague sense that whether “English will be useful for my future” or not, they don’t have a clear idea of what that means, nor is that a very strong motivator; it’s too vague and too far off. The first step in tackling the problem of motivation is that the teachers need to understand and appreciate the role and importance of motivation in any learning.
In the context of second language learning, William Littleton (1987:53) observes: In second language learning as in every other field of human learning, motivation is the critical Orca which determines whether a learner embarks on a task at all, how much energy he devotes to it, and how long he perseveres. It is a complex phenomenon and includes many components: the individual’s drive, need for achievement and success, curiosity, desire for stimulation and new experience, and so on. These factors play a role in every kind of learning situation. Student motivation is influenced by both internal and external factors that can start, sustain, intensify, or discourage behoove (Reeve, 1996). The teacher has to activate these motivational components in the students but that is the precise problem. How can it be done in every class everyday? C/ Ways of motivating students in the classroom 1) – “Pair work” or “Group work” One of the successful ways, if the teacher is resourceful and skilful enough, to motivate his/her students to participate in the lesson is to use “pair work” or “Group work” appropriately.
Language is best learned through the close collaboration and communication among students. This type of collaboration results in benefits for all or both learners. In fact, learners can help each other while working on different types of tasks such as writing dialogues, interviews, drawing pictures and making comments about hem, play roles, etc… Researches on Second Language Acquisition have shown that learners have differences in mastering skills. While one student is good in drawing, another can be good in expressing ideas verbally; a third other student can be good at role play and imitation.
Besides, some students find it less stressful, if not much comfortable to learn certain rules or usages of language from their pears and comrades than from their teacher-Finally, communicative language teaching requires a sense of community and environment of trust and mutual confidence which “pair work” or “Group work” can provide. ) The seating of the students The way the students are seated in the classroom will often determine the dynamics of the lesson.
Indeed, a simple change in the seating pattern can make an incredible difference to group coherence and student satisfaction, and I’ve seen many other cases where seating has been a crucial element in the success or failure of the lesson. The seating pattern you use may, in some cases, not be fully under your control – if for example the desks are fixed to the ground or the school has strict rules about not moving the furniture. Student numbers are also going to be an issue. I’ll talk about average size classes – anything from 6 to 25.
Teachers have different preferences for seating arrangements -? groups seated round small tables is often one choice. This is probably the best option for the larger classes in this range, but for smaller numbers and with adult or teenage students I think the horseshoe shape, which I find has all of the advantages of groups, and none of the disadvantages. A horseshoe may be desks in a U-shape with a hollow centre, students in a semicircle on chairs with arm-rests and no desks, or students seated around three sides of a large table, with the teacher at one end. N any case, whatever seating pattern you choose or is imposed on you, the class is likely to be more successful if you keep the following principles in mind: a) Try and maximize eye contact. Both teacher to student and student to student. In full class phases of the lesson, if the person who is speaking does not have eye contact with the others, then attention is likely to drop. This is the main reason personally think the horseshoe shape to groups is better. B) Make sure students are seated at a comfortable distance from each other.
Make sure you don’t have one student sitting alone or outside the groups. Besides, try to leave a fair empty, but not so much a space because large distances between the students will tend to lead to a “muted” atmosphere, low pace, and less active student participation in the lesson. C) Think in advance about how you will organize changing partners or changing groups. This is a stage of the lesson which can potentially descend into chaos if it’s not tightly controlled, with students wandering aimlessly around not knowing where to go or confidently moving to the wrong place. ) The Error Correction It is always asked whether we should correct all students’ errors, whenever hey occur. The reasonable answer is that if we stop at every single error and treat it with no room for errors to take place, this will lead to a gap of communication and students will be too much afraid of making mistakes. Hence, due to being too much obsessed with making errors, students will be too much reluctant to participate. Thus, Teachers should be aware of when to correct errors and how to do that without any hurt and humiliation.
In a learner- centered classroom, it should be better to correct errors, which students make unconsciously, whenever there is a gap of communication or hen not treating the error will result in a misunderstanding of the idea expressed. Concerning the ways of how to correct errors, there are several techniques which the teacher, who is seen as the monitor, should choose from them according to the type of the error and task where the incorrect form of language occurs. Among these ways of correction we can state: self correction, peer correction and teacher correction. ) Role play This is another technique to vary the pace the lesson and to respond to the fundamental notion of variety in teaching. Teachers are advised to use the ole- play activity in order to motivate their students and to help the less motivated learners take part in the lesson. Besides, certain tasks in the students book are followed by a role- play activity where it becomes a necessity to undergo such an activity. As good examples of that we can state: the hide (item) and guessing game, traumatizing an interview of customer and shop assistant, doctor and patient conversation, etc… ) Using Aurelia, flash cards, Stories and songs in teaching Aurelia and flash cards are considered as important tools in teaching especially a foreign language, since they play the ole of a facilitator in teaching new vocabularies such as fruits, vegetables, clothes items, etc… Besides, they are very helpful in drawing especially beginners’ attention to follow and match new words to items. In addition, Aurelia is an authentic material that helps the teacher to overcome classroom artificiality. Creating stories with the students is another way of developing speaking and writing skills.
Actually, creating stories is grounded in the students’ ability to create a story from their personal experience. In creating stories some issues are revealed such as: a) fluency, b) whether the students eave enough language to create the story, and c) accuracy. Teachers are able to demonstrate techniques of using songs in different ways to teach grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and community building because the students like songs and they motivate the students to learn the English language in an interesting way.
Teachers can elicit students’ ideas about the song through activities such as prediction, mind maps, word splashes, etc. Students discuss questions such as the feelings in the song, what will happen next, etc. And write their responses in an interesting manner. Students may rite and present how the song makes them feel and then draw a picture of their feelings while listening to the song. Teachers respond to this presentation and ask questions. Then, feedback is provided from the group. 6) Using audio visual material: cassette player, video, computer…
Since our schools are queue peed with various audio visual materials such as cassette recorders, videos, computers, projectors, magic boards and many others, teachers should use these materials when teaching. Indeed, they should include the appropriate material to use while planning their lessons. For instance, we should include a cassette player in a lesson based on listening, while we need to include a computer in any e-lesson or a lesson about designing a website or an internet page about your school. Whereas, we can use an overhead projector in presenting writing drafts for classroom correction or to read. ) using the All in the FEE SSL classroom Should we or shouldn’t we use the students’ first language (L 1) in the classroom? This is one of the questions which most divides FEEL/SSL teachers, whether they are for it or against tithe main argument against the use of the All in language teaching is that students will become dependent on it, and not even try to understand meaning from context and explanation, or express what they want to say within their limited command of the target language (1. 2). But there are other, historical reasons why the use of the students’ mother tongue went out of favor.
Initially it was part of a reaction against the Grammar-Translation method, which had dominated late 19th and early 20th century teaching, and which saw language learning as a means towards intellectual development rather than as being for utilitarian, communicative reposes. But, we can say that there are a few cases when we can resort to the student’s mother tongue such as- When there is a gap Of communication or total misunderstanding, since it can prevent time being wasted on fruitless explanations and instructions, when it could be better spent on language practice. It can be used contrastively to point out problem areas of grammar. For example, various course books, like Headway, now encourage students to translate model sentences into their own language in order to compare and contrast the grammar. – It can be used with beginners, when students are raying to say something but having difficulty, they can say it in their own language and the teacher can reformulate it for them. – When students need to combine the two languages, for example in those lessons whose focus evolve around translation and interpreting. 1.
Major Objectives: -?Comprehensible input – Language used in context Secondary Objectives: -? Increased verbal interaction – Reduced anxiety Active involvement 2. Name of the strategy Aurelia Strategies 3. Description of the strategy Aurelia is a term for real things, concrete objects, that are used in the classroom to build background knowledge and vocabulary. It provides the students with experiences on which to build and an opportunity to use all the senses in learning. It allows students to see, feel, hear, smell, and sometimes even taste the Object being explored. . Step by step procedure of how this strategy can be implemented in a learning activity and how it can be used in general. Use of graphics and summarizing important information is helpful. 1. Be aware of opportunities to include Aurelia in lessons as you plan. Papered stories that you will be using in the classroom to identify any vocabulary that may be unfamiliar to the students. Locate Aurelia that will help their understanding. Begin collecting items that can be stored in the classroom to use whenever needed. Have parents help donate to the Aurelia box.
Collaborate with other grade level teachers to build a Aurelia library to use for major theme units. Locate local merchants, farmers, and other resources for the loan of large items such as farm equipment or animals. If the item is too large to bring in or move and the students would benefit form seeing it, take a field trip. 5. Specific application and examples of strategy implementation in the classroom. For a student who doesn’t know about the game of baseball, the teacher should have a baseball, a baseball bat, a glove, and should bring the child to a baseball field.
For a book of poems, the teacher may bring in items to go with each poem. If there is one about making maracas form gourds, she might bring in gourds and have the students make their own maracas. 6. Conclusion: (not to exceed two paragraphs double-spaced font 12). The use of Aurelia in the classroom supports student learning in many ways. Allowing the students to explore the objects hands-on is a powerful way to connect vocabulary to real life. Using Aurelia is motivating to the students because they can see how the item is actually used and experiment with it.
By using Aurelia, there is no question as to the size, color, texture, and etc. Of the item being discussed. It conveys the meaning much more than any picture or illustration. Students get so much more when teachers use Aurelia in the classroom. A general principle of language teaching today IS to provide students with language input they can understand and opportunities to use and practice that language. This principle implies that teachers must provide comprehensible input and provide authentic communicative tasks.
Strategies for providing comprehensible input include modifying teacher language; using visuals, Aurelia, and graphic organizers to provide nonverbal support; and building on students’ background knowledge and experiences. Strategies for encouraging communication include cooperative learning structures to increase peer interaction and extending student responses by asking clarification or expansion questions. In addition, teachers need to identify language development objectives as an integral part of their content teaching. These goals may differ for native speakers and second language earners within a thematic unit or a particular level.
Without such objectives, it is unlikely that students will acquire all aspects of social and academic language proficiency. In the 50/50 immersion programs in School District 54 in Scumbag, IL, teaching strategies such as the Total physical Response methodologies to create comprehensible input are used during the preproduction and early production stages because they are effective for building receptive language. In addition, the Language Experience Approach is used with students at this level because it allows them to build language as hey participate in activities that they can understand and then recount.
Teachers write down (usually on the blackboard) what students dictate, thus promoting literacy development in the second language as well. Once students are able to answer questions, teachers find that sentence starters are an effective way to scaffold language production and encourage students to speak at length. Students who are beginning to speak and who have also developed basic literacy skills can benefit from vocabulary learning strategies such as instruction in prefixes, suffixes, word families, and cognates between engages.
Students at higher levels of proficiency need to be exposed to language and texts that are understandable to them but that contain some new words and more complex structures so that they can continually build the vocabulary and fluency necessary to become proficient in the second language. The following are some strategies that are used by immersion teachers in the 50/50 program at Key Elementary in Arlington, VA: Identify the vocabulary that students will need to comprehend a lesson and pre-teach this vocabulary before the lesson. Identify both content and language objectives or all lessons.
Slow down speech when necessary. Generate questions that promote higher order thinking but use varying levels of linguistic complexity depending upon the proficiency level of each student. Provide an environment that is rich in print. This includes word walls, labels for everyday items, and vocabulary lists that are tied to the content being studied in class. Provide plenty of high-interest reading materials (fiction and nonfiction) at various reading levels. Make sure the students have free time in which they can use the language of instruction to talk about their own interests. Use plenty of songs.
Use commercially produced songs, and have students compose their own. Have students work in cooperative learning groups. Regroup when necessary. Assign individual work with clear guidelines and expectations. Plan activities that involve Total Physical Response. Include role-playing activities not only during the language arts period, but also in the content areas. Use drama and dance in class. Select 10 subjects and use them in the classroom for developing language Lesson plan for developing language skills through Aurelia Lesson Plan: Intermediate Level Class Intermediate SSL Date
Time: We are assuming the class period is a minimum of two hours. Times listed for the activities are approximate. Times for each of the activities will vary depending on number of students in the class, literacy level of the class, and other factors. A specific lesson plan will always occur in the context of prior and subsequent lessons and objectives and other class activities. The following is a sample plan using a commercially published textbook. It is included because it contains an activity for interpreting a weekly homework form, a type of document literacy that most parents will need to read and fill UT for their children.
Also, we want to show that it is not necessary to create all your own activities in your lesson plans; textbook exercises can often be adapted or even used as is to meet your objectives. Lesson Objective: Interpret elementary school weekly homework form. Language Skills: Read a simple chart and explain the following orally: Days of the week School subjects Other vocabulary: daily, weekly, each, comments (new) Life Skills: Cultural information: parents are often expected to monitor or help with children’s homework Materials: Equipment: CLC Sample homework forms from local schools]Overhead projector D
Transparency of one foredoom A Day in the Life of the Gonzalez Family (text, page 49 and video scene 6), by C. Van Dozer & M. Burt (1999). Available from the Center for Applied Linguistics, at http://collators. Cal. Org/store/ Used with permission. Stages of the Lesson: Warm Up/Review (10 minutes) Review school subjects by asking learners what their children are studying in school and which subjects and skills are listed on their children’s report cards (This is a review of a previous lesson on interpreting report cards). Review days of the week by asking learners if their children study these every ay or only on certain days.
Ask what days the learners study English and what they do other days. PART II: ACTIVITY PACKETS Introduction “Elementary school teachers often prepare weekly homework forms so parents can help their children with homework. Today we are going to learn how to read and fill out these forms. ” Presentation (20 minutes) 1 . Play the video, scene 6 (Class has previously seen this during a lesson on permission slips and report cards). Ask the learners what Maria can do to help her daughter do better in school. Elicit the suggestion that she can review the weekly homework sheet. . Show the Sample Homework Form A (page 11-39) on the Overhead Projector. Have the learners read the form silently and note any words they don’t know. Ask what words they noted and write them on the board. Have the learners discuss the meanings. Hand out copies of the form to the students. Then ask the following comprehension questions: What do the children have to do every day? How often do they have a math worksheet? How often do they create a special project? What is Catalina having difficulty doing? What does her mother ask the teacher to do? Practice (30 minutes) 1 .