The key feature of ethnography as a qualitative research methodology is that, it involves long ERM study of a group by the researcher who becomes both the observer and participant in the group this is often termed as participant observation(Ellis 2010)They don’t always take a participant role,sometimes they are non- participant observers. Access to a group for study may involve the researcher in seeking the help of a gate keeper(Ellis 2010). In this study a gate keeper can be the HOOD of acute care unit who allows to access the group of doctors and nurses and also to introduce them.
However there are some ethical issues this approach like an informed content of colleagues(Ellis 201 0) Convenience sampling is apt for his study as the researcher cannot predict the situation. Let might be very difficult to get enough number of sample at a stretch,observation during a period of one week with different staff at different shifts,would be great to get maximum number Of sample Of 40 . Data collection methods include observation and interview .
There are mainly three broad types of information are usually caught by ethnographer IEEE;: the cultural behavior(which means what members of the culture do) Cultural artifacts : What members of the culture make or use Cultural speech(What people say) This implies that ethnographers rely on a wide variety of data sources including observations indents interviews records charts and other type of physical evidence(Diary letter) (Polio and Beck 2010) Observation is not unique to research and can be considered as part Of every day life(Banner and Finn,2008) .
Adler and Adler (1994) noted ; “For as long as people have been interested in studying the social and natural world around them observation has served as bedrock Of source Of human 377) Often the key objective of using observation is to check weather what people say that they do is the same as what they actually do.
As Hammerless (1990) suggested to rely on what people say about what they believe and do, without also observing what they do, is to neglect the complex relationship between attitudes behavior( p 597) There are many other reasons for using observation as the data collection method : ; It helps us to inform about the influence of the physical environment ; Captures sense of the context of the and whole social settings in which people function ; Helps to illustrate the whole picture (Banner and Finn,2008).
Some phenomena lent themselves well to observation(Polio and Handler 1995) including characteristic and conditions of individuals, verbal ND no verbal communication behavior, activities, skill attainment and performance and the characteristics of an environment. (Banner and Finn,2008) Observation can be considered as an approach ,in which the aspects of the phenomenon to be observed are operationally defined and decided in advance(Banner and Finn,2008) It’s actually a skill to interview in qualitative research and this can be acquired through practice. Ellis 201 0) ethnographic interviews are unstructured- here I would like to use descriptive questions to ask participants about there experiences in there own language and are the backbone of ethnographic interviews(Polio and Beck, 2008) however study participants will not share much information with interviewers if they do not trust them close rapport with respondents provides access to richer information and to personal or intimate details. And audio taping equipment batteries tapes notepads and pens are essentials.
Tape recorded interviews should be listened to and checked for audibility and completeness soon after the interview is over. The analysis mainly based on the patterns in the behavior and thoughts of the participants comparing one pattern against another and analyzing many tatters simultaneously(Fellowman 1989) Spray’s 1979) ‘In an ethnographic study,research sequence is often used for data analysis . (Polio and Beck, 2008). On the other hand Sparsely believes that language is the primary means that relates cultural meaning in a culture.
His sequence of 12 steps, which includes both data collection and data analysis, and the analysis part includes making a domain analysis which are units of cultural knowledge and making a taxonomic analysis asking contrast questions making continental analysis discovering cultural themes and the last step is writing the ethnography. (Polio and Beck 2008) On the contrary is very challenging method when it compares to other quantitative methods for there are no universal rules for analyzing data( Polio and Beck 2008). 2 – Do weekly counseling sessions decrease stress levels of careers of people with Alchemies disease?
This study can better done by the experimental method, to be more specific a randomized controlled trial is apt for this particular study. The genuineness of true experiments give us greater confidence that they depict the causal relationships under controlled settings of study (Polio and Beck,20TH) Randomized controlled trials are able to answer a very specific question or related questions,because it uses specific manner ( Ellis 2010). RCA use techniques to find out the relationships between to variables. Moreover it holds direct control over many other factors that may effect the validity and reliability of the findings( Ellis 2010).
Here Independent variables is weekly counseling sessions and dependent variable is stress levels of careers of people with Alchemies disease. Rest’s are characterized by the following properties Manipulation – The experimenter does something to some subjects or some type of interventions. / Control – The experimenter introduces controls into the study, including devising good approximation of counter factual – usually a controlled group that does not receive the intervention. X/ Randomization – The experimenter assigns subjects to a controlled or experimental conditions on a random basis. Polio and Beck 2010) It was pointed out earlier that the RCA involves the random allocation of participants(Care of people with Alchemist’s disease) between experimental groups, whose members receive the treatment (in this study weekly counseling sessions) and control group who is devoid of or receive no intervention (in this study intervention means counseling sessions) I think a continuous 8 weeks counseling sessions that includes psychological and physical retreat of careers of Alchemist’s patient can decrease stress levels of participants.
In this particular study should make sure that all meet the demands of inclusion criteria( Ellis 2010). In this study inclusion criteria involves careers who suffer from stress related to their work experience with Alchemist’s patient. After sampling ,the researcher divides the entire sample into two different groups so that each group portrays the similar characters and even in terms f variables. ( Ellis 2010). Researchers manipulate independent variable by administrating the intervention to some subjects while withholding it from others.
To illustrate participants in the experimental groups are subjected to counseling sessions through out the period where as those in the controlled group gets the usual care and treatment . Firstly, researcher have to do a pretest that involves the observation of dependent variable before the counseling session. This design permits us to examine what changes in stress levels were caused by the 8 week counseling session because only some people were subjected to it, providing an important comparison (Polio and Beck 2010) There are mainly two methods for data collection namely clinical or non clinical.
Here it is a non clinical method we can use questionnaires for the data collection. ( Ellis 2010)A crucial part of good research design concerns making sure that the questionnaire design addresses the needs of the research. To put this another way; somehow we need to ensure that the questions asked are the right ones. (sis. Leeds. AC. UK home resources tutorial documents surveys). Reliability and validity are the two important aspect about the tool-The consistency in measuring is reliability -If he device produces the same or similar results when it uses under same circumstances,it is reliable.
Whereas validity defined as, whether a tool measures or examines what it claims to measure or examine. ‘ (www. HOLAP. Karol. Net/reliabilityandvalidity. HTML) Outcome data should be collected in the same way and with the same figures for all the study group to facilitate this where possible participants may remain unaware of the intervention being received(Cherish and Lacey 201 0). Here the researcher can use blinding in order to reduce the risk of biases. (http;//www. Coralline. Erg/DOI/full)Let means the participants in the trial doesn’t know which intervention is given to each individual.
A comparison of both group after the counseling session can be done by a post test. Despite the benefits of experimental research this has some limitations, first of all there are often constrains that make an experimental approach impractical Or impossible(polio and Beck 2008) 3: What are the factors that influence women’s smoking behavior during pregnancy? This study has got social relevance. The grounded theory tradition which has its roots in sociology, seeks to describe and understand the social psychological and structural processes that occur in a social setting. Polio and Beck 2008). It’s procedures are not specific to a particular discipline or method of data collection. (Holloway and Wheeler, 2002) Grounded Theory research is used to generate theories about practice and understanding from many different areas of health care(Ellis 201 0) so in this study grounded theory is very apt because it deals with a practice or a habit and we can gain insights into how pregnant ladies changes there smoking behavior during pregnancy Of the qualitative approaches to research grounded theory is perhaps the cost systematic in its approach.
Grounded theory systematically applies procedural steps to explore social phenomenon and derive a theory that explains people’s understanding of those phenomenon -According to Strauss & Carbon, grounded theory emerges inductively from the research study. Let undergoes very systematic process, data collection and analysis of data are the two major aspects of the study,so that the theory or the phenomena derives from the reciprocal relationship with each other . (Strauss & Carbon, 1 990) The starting point for grounded theory is that to select a homogeneous ample ,which means a sample portrays same kind of experience and with same process .
A broader sample enables the researcher to draw on the experience of people to come to some conclusion of their experience (Ellis 201 0) Samples for qualitative studies are generally much smaller than those used in quantitative studies. (www’. Qualitative-research. Net Home Volvo 1 1, No 3 (201 0))The sampling in this study is theoretical sampling. I would like to select the samples from antenatal clinics or Gap’s. The sample needs to be broad enough to enable the researcher to draw on the experiences enough people o come to some conclusion (Ellis 201 0).
But usually Grounded research typically done with 20 to 30 people. (Polio and Beck,2008). The sample size is determined by the theory being generated from the qualitative data. The data analysis can be done in two ways. Firstly, grounded theory may be used as a technique for analyzing data, which includes the process of constant comparison. The theory suggests that categories and properties are concepts that are identified by the researcher and evolve from the constant comparing of the data. (press. Ann.. Due. AU/info_systems/mobile_devices/ chassis. HTML) Constant comparative analysis can be explained as the continuous comparison Of data obtained from different participants so that the researcher analyses the difference or similarity among them. (BMW. Range. Co. NZ/analysis/83/) Methods used in data collection include, interviews ,documentary evidence, case studies and participant observations. Here would like to use interview as my data collection method. Let would be so helpful when we can maintain the field notes throughout the process of data collection.
Certain occurrences in the setting or ideas from participants that seem of vital interest are corded either during or after data collection. They remind the researcher of the events and interactions and trigger thinking process. (Holloway and Wheeler,2004). As mentioned above the analysis of Grounded theory can be done by major methods; Firstly, the Glasses and Stratus’s Grounded theory method, and the second one is Strauss and Corrine’s approach. (Polio and Beck,2008). In this study would like to use Strauss and Corrine’s approach.
Main three types of coding includes ; Open axial and selective coding the out come of the Strauss and Corrine’s approach is a full conceptual description that explains owe a basic social problem that emerged from the data is processed in a social setting (Polio and Beck 2008)…. When compared to other ways of qualitative analysis, It provides researchers with a unique tool for theoretical development. On contrary to the conventional path Grounded Theory works inductive . A researcher affords the luxury of maintaining an open mind and allowing the data to inform the discovery’ of theory.
Natural phenomena is best represented by the emergent findings avoiding preconceived ideas. (or. IOW. Due. AU/CGI/vivisection. CGI) 4: What is the effect of hydrotherapy on the pain levels of people with stet-arthritis? This study is Quantitative study. The true experimental designs are those in which the researcher has a great deal of control over the research situation. (Inseminates,2008). There are three criteria for a true experimental design-Firstly, the researcher manipulates the experimental variable(s).
Second one is at least one experimental and one comparison group are included in the study. Last criteria is that subjects are randomly assigned to either the experimental or the comparison group. (Inseminates,2008). Using manipulation, researcher consciously vary the independent variable ND observe its effect on dependent variable. Researcher manipulate the independent variable by administering an experimental treatment(intervention) to some subjects while withholding it from others.
Here dependent variable is pain level an independent variable is hydrotherapy(Polio and Beck 2010) Randomization or random assignment to study groups involves distribution of subject to either the experimental or control group on purely random or chance basis(Schneider and et al 2003) Sampling is the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population. It is subset of population elements. Simple and sampling can be used for this study. The members of the population are numbered and a number of them are selected using random numbers without replacing them.