In human being, this called child rearing which has a simple definition as raising, feeding and caring children. But, actually child rearing is more than this definition in terms of human being because as being unman we have some other distinctive qualities than animals or plants such as mind, moral, advanced community structure, high-developed social connections, etc.
Thus, if we say child rearing is a time period that processes maybe 18-20 years, in this process parents have to consider cognitive, emotional, mental, social and maybe moral development of a child because any mistake done in this process can be caused undesirable and unchangeable long-term effects on child such as making a faulty Fear and Child Rearing Regal-2 origin when constructing a building. We can say that upbringing process of a hill determines the future character of a child.
So, because children are our future and also child (Figure 1) rearing determines the future character Of children, we can say that there is a direct correlation between child rearing and our future (see figure 1 above). In this respect, we can express the significance of child rearing as what kind of a person our children will be is the same as how our future will be. To put it differently, child rearing is a very important issue in terms of our consecrate future. So when child rearing is an important issue, it is also important to know how to do it in a better way.
There are various types of techniques in child rearing so parents should know the right techniques for a better child rearing. We will see in the following parts of this paper that there is discrimination among these techniques as love-oriented and fear-oriented. Between these two kinds of techniques, considering the healthy cognitive and emotional development of a child, Leopoldville techniques are more effective, useful and beneficial than foreordained techniques in terms of making children behave in desired manners.
Fear and Child Rearing Eureka-3 As it is said before, some kind of child rearing techniques are called fear- oriented and others love-oriented. It shouldn’t be too hard to figure out the relation between love and love-oriented child rearing techniques where love is generally considered a positive emotion. But to understand the relation between fear and child rearing techniques, we need to make a definition that some disciplinary techniques try to trigger a fear in children to make them act in desired manners.
Fear constitutes a fundamental basement for these techniques and this is why we called these techniques as fear-oriented. There are many fear-oriented techniques in child rearing such as punishment, active self-feeling aversive stimulation, threat etc. Marcella and Schmitt support that aversive stimulation and threat clearly involve a freebased method (782). Another important point for understanding the correlation between fear and child rearing is reasons for why fear underlies these disciplinary techniques or in other words why these techniques use fear.
The first reason is the deterrent effect of fear such that by using fear, some techniques gain a valid enforcement. For example, physical punishment includes a fear of pain and Pratt says that fear of pain has a definite disciplinary value (924). The second reason for why these techniques use fear is because fear has an incentive effect. Linefeed states that fear render children to learn from their mistakes, without fear children little motivation for this (18). Larger explains the last reason that sometimes other techniques are not sufficient so we need physical punishment which is fear- oriented.
For example, disciplinary spanking can optimize the behavioral process of a child when it is applied properly (1539). Depending on previous arguments, we can say that there is a correlation between fear and child rearing. Fear and Child Rearing Eureka;4 Now it is more obvious the relation between fear and child rearing and also as we have said the relation between love and child rearing is clear as well. So depending on these relations, we can investigate these techniques more detailed by dividing them into two categories as love-oriented and fear- oriented in order to examine them easily.
Mat-well and Schmitt support this categorization by saying that various types of disciplinary techniques mostly have been categorized as love-oriented and fundamentalists which can definitely be expressed as fear-oriented (779). It is argued that there are any different disciplinary techniques in child rearing and now we can examine them as fear-oriented and love-oriented such that Marcella and Schmitt referenced a questionnaire that is including 16 different influence/ disciplinary techniques of child rearing such as punishment, threat, promise, preserving, expertise, aversive stimulation, etc. 781). They also add that 14 of these techniques are considered as love-oriented such as self-feeling, liking, promise while 2 of them which are aversive stimulation and threat are considered as foreordained (781 Eventually, we can examine disciplinary quenches from the perspective of fear-oriented and love-oriented. At this point, if we start to examine disciplinary techniques from foreordained techniques, we will see some undesirable consequences.
Although foreordained techniques are effective and provide desired short-term outcomes, they have some bad long-term outcomes as well in terms of healthy cognitive, emotional and personal development of a child. The most cornrow and known fear oriented technique is physical punishment and also maybe it is the most effective way of Fear and Child Rearing Eureka-5 discipline in a short term but it can leave children with undesirable mental ND cognitive problems. Rodriguez emphasizes that physically abused and punished children are more likely to demonstrate negative characteristics such as oppositional, behavior problems, depression etc. 810). Becker also notes that many studies have found that punishment positively associated with aggressive behavior (CTD. In Pratt 67). Another problem with fear- oriented techniques such as punishment is they don’t have longer validity or permanent effects on children behaviors. They are effective only if they are continuously acted. Pratt found that punishment is likely to generate assessment and resistance that are restrained only when the fear of authority is maintained (67).
The reason why fear-oriented techniques don’t have long term effects is also a reason for why foreordained techniques are not useful for child rearing in long term such that foreordained techniques don’t provide anything to personal development of a child. In other words, these techniques don’t teach anything to children like why a behavior is wrong, they only prevent them to do that wrong behavior. Pratt explains this fact that foreordained techniques like punishment is less likely than positive methods o develop the child’s inner resources for evaluating and correcting his own conduct (67).
Clause also remarks a similar idea that while parents may obtain superficial social conformity by using punishment, they may not achieve their long-term solicitation objectives because children fail to develop their own internal capacities for self-correction (CTD. In Pratt 67). Borrower and Elder also claim that methods of physical punishment or shouting -which are clearly fear-oriented-, represent an imposed control system so they don’t engage the child’s own mechanisms of self-control (892).
To sum up, fear-oriented quenches have very poor long-term effects on behavioral actions of a child because they don’t contribute to child inner resources and personal skills so that they cannot leave any long term effects on children. Fear and Child Rearing Regal-6 While fear-oriented techniques are very ineffective in child rearing in long- terms, love-oriented techniques have longer and permanent influence on child’s behavioral development. We have discussed fear-oriented techniques via punishment so we can examine love-oriented techniques via rewarding which is a love-oriented technique.
Pratt says that rewarding a good behavior revised an enjoyment which is derived from the behavior and this enjoyment reinforces the sustainability of that behavior (67). Coppersmith also comes with a supportive claim that parents who used rewarding report that their application are effective than parents who used punishment (CTD. In Pratt 67). Finally, it can be concluded that fear-oriented techniques are less likely to have long-term effects and also less likely to provide a contribution to the internal development of a child than Leopoldville techniques.
So we can say that fear-oriented techniques are less useful and beneficial than love- oriented techniques regarding the healthy cognitive and personal development of a child. After we have examined the long and short term effects of fear-oriented and Leopoldville techniques, it can be also beneficial to look at the public tendency towards these techniques. The public tendency always gives a good idea of considering something because cumulative choices are generally true.
One person or two persons can do mistakes but hundreds or thousands of people do not. In addition, because humans are learning creatures and they experience many things by trying, they find out the right path at the end Fear and Child Rearing Eureka;7 f these tries and these right choices settle down in public tendency. The study referenced in Marcella and Schmitt research says that among both mothers and not married college women, love-oriented techniques have more widespread use than foreordained techniques (781 ).
In this respect, when love-oriented techniques are more common among societies so these can be interpreted as love-oriented techniques are more useful, effective and beneficial for child rearing than fear-oriented techniques. To sum up everything, we have discussed that child rearing is a very significant issue in terms of human being and for this important process fear undergoes a crucial role via disciplinary techniques of child rearing. Among these techniques, regarding the role of fear, there is general discrimination among these techniques as fear-oriented and love- oriented.
Comparison of between two kinds of techniques- in terms of the importance of child rearing- showed that Leopoldville techniques are more useful, beneficial and effective in terms of the healthy cognitive, mental, emotional and personal development of a child. In addition, a public survey supports the superiority of love-oriented techniques that there is a public indecency towards the love-oriented techniques.. In the light of everything, it can be stated that using love-oriented techniques in child rearing are more advised to parents.
During our research process, we followed some steps to reach a clear result about our hypothesis such that we first looked at concepts child rearing and fear and their Fear and Child Rearing Regal-8 relation. To understand more about them we could have conducted more research about child rearing and also we could have searched about children’s psychological development to determine the effects of disciplinary techniques on children in detailed. Furthermore, examining some special cases that are conducted about impacts of fear and love were also beneficial to reach a more obvious idea about hypothesis.