This is reflected in the largely French vocabulary of ballet. Despite the great reforms of Noverre in the eighteenth century, ballet went into decline in France after 1830, though it was continued in Denmark, Italy, and Russia. It was reintroduced to Western Europe on the eve of the First World War by a Russian company: the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev, who came to be influential around the world. Diaghilev’s company came to be a destination for many of the Russian trained dancers fleeing the famine and unrest that followed the Bolshevik revolution.
These dancers brought many of the choreographic and stylistic innovations that had been flourishing under the zars back to their place of origin. In the 20th century ballet has continued to develop and has had a strong influence on broader concert dance. For example, in the IJnited States, choreographer George Balanchine developed what is now known as neoclassical ballet. Subsequent developments now include contemporary ballet and post-structural ballet, seen in the work of William Forsythe in Germany. Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev is the other my favorite.
He was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. And the Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company which performed under the directorship of Sergei Diaghilev between 1909 and 1929. They performed in many countries, including England, the U. S. A. , and Spain. Many of the company’s dancers originated from the Imperial Ballet of Saint Petersburg. Younger dancers were trained in Paris, within the community of exiles after the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The company featured and premiered now-famous (and sometimes notorious) works by the great choreographers Marius Petipa and Michel Fokine, as well as new works by Bronislava Nijinska, L©onide Massine, Vaslav Nijinsky, and the oung George Balanchine at the start of his career. The company’s productions, which combined new dance, art and music, created a huge sensation around the world, altering the course of musical history, bringing many significant visual artists into the public eye, and completely reinvigorating the art of performing dance.
The Ballets Russes was one of the most influential theatre companies of the twentieth century, in part because of its ground-breaking artistic collaboration among contemporary choreographers, composers, artists, and dancers. Its ballets have been variously interpreted as Classical, Neo-classical, Romantic, Neo- Romantic, Avant- Garde, Expressionist, Abstract, and Orientalist. The influence of the Ballets Russes lasts to this day in one form or another. There are a lot of choreographers in this world. But my favorite choreographer is George Balanchine.
He was one of the 20th century’s foremost choreographers, a pioneer of ballet in the United States, co- founder and balletmaster of New York City Ballet: his work created modern ballet, based on his deep knowledge of classical forms and techniques.  He was a choreographer known for his musicality; he did not illustrate music but expressed it in dance and worked extensively with Igor Stravinsky. Apollo is a ballet in tableaux composed between 1 927 and 1928 by Igor Stravinsky. It was choreographed by balletmaster George Balanchine in 1928, the composer contributing the libretto.
The scenery and costumes were designed by Andre Bauchant with new costumes by Coco Chanel in 1929. The scenery was executed by Prince A. Schervashidze, the costumes under the direction of Mme. A. Youkine; the lighting was by Ronald Bates and the staging by Francia Russell. The American patron of the arts Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge commissioned the ballet in 1927 for a festival of contemporary music to be held the following year at the Library of Congress, Washington. Apollo is Balanchine’s oldest surviving ballet and his first great public success.
It marked the beginning of his significant and enduring collaboration with Stravinsky and featured the neoclassical style for which Balanchine was to become renowned. Itwas presented for the first time on 12 June 1928 by Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes at the Theatre Sarah Berbhart in Paris. Balanchine looked upon Apollo as the turning point of his life, “in its sustained oneness of tone and feeling”. The story centres around Apollo, the god of music, who is visited by three muses; Terpsichore, muse of dance and ong; Polyhymnia, muse of mime; and Calliope, muse of poetry.
This ballet plainly takes Classical antiquity as its subject, but the plot suggests a contemporary situation. The ballet is concerned with the reinvention of tradition, since its inspiration is “classique”, or even post-baroque, but nevertheless the orchestra is simplified. Apollo composed by Igoy Stravinsky. Stravinsky wrote for a homogeneous ensemble of bowed string instruments, choosing to replace the contrasts in timbre that one hears in Pulcinella with contrasts in dynamics. As much later in Agon, this ballet takes its inspiration from the rand tradition of French seventeenth and eighteenth- century music, in particular that of Lully.
The prologue begins with dotted rhythms in the style of a French overture. The composer depends on a basic rhythmic cell, presented at the beginning of the work, which he transforms by subdivisions of successive values which are made Increasingly complex. The characters are Apollo and three Muses: Calliope, the musen of poetry; Polyhymnia, the muse of rhetoric; and Terpsichore, the muse of dance. The theme is: Apollon musagetes (“director of the Muses”) instructs the muses in their arts and leads them to Parnassus. The ballet is divided nto two tableaux: the first tableau called The birth of Apollo.
This research paper is based on two research areas which are factors that influencing teenagers to visit historical places and teenagers’ perception of the sites in relation to preserve their own heritage. The propose we do this research is to identify factors to investigate factors influencing youngsters to visit historical places and To investigate the youngsters’ perception of the sites in relation to preserving their heritage. At current, we are mainly focused on the teenagers. As a result, traveling to historical places is more popular among youngsters’ nowadays, but this situation was different before.
Quantitative method was used for this research. The data used in this research were collected through an online questionnaire. Some past research and related articles were researched from the internet an online questionnaire was designed. We received 60 responses through the questionnaire from online survey. To sum up, most of the respondents felt that it is boring to visit historical places, but 88% of respondents think that it is important in order to preserve heritage sites. The respondents who had visited historical places before, they would like to recommend their friends to sit the historical places.
Nowadays, many schools are holding many field trips to historical places such as Malice in Malaysia as they are trying to let students know more about historical places and learn different things other than in classroom. In conclusion, preserving heritage is very important to persuade the young generation to appreciate their culture and heritage. INTRODUCTION Traveling is one of the favorite leisure activities to do, especially during holidays and festivals-Sometimes,it can be a hobby for someone who really loves to explore other places.
There are many types of destination such as island,jungle,cities,hills,theme parks and historical places of these destination depend on the interest of an individual. However ,for some people,when we mention about historical places, they might perceive the trip as boring, but historical places still can attract many teenagers or seniors to visit the places. Historical places are meaningful, the youth can know more about the place they were born or the places they visited. Some cities are promoting their tourism through some architectural design of historical buildings.
For example,Malice is a very famous historical city in Malaysia. Many people know about A Famous due to its status as the famous landmark of Malice. One of the ways that the Malaysian government does to attract tourists and locals to know more about A Famous is through water world theme park with the same name as the famous historical fort, so when teenagers go to the water park they may want to know more about A Famous. As a result, traveling to historical places is more popular among youngsters’ nowadays, but this situation was different before.
Long time ago,you could only see senior tourists and local visitors when you visited historical places. As the time passes, most teenagers have stayed in modern city such as Seoul, Tokyo, New York for a long time, so their perception on life is influenced greatly by modern lifestyle, they know that they should explore different world. For example, historical places can allow them to learn more about their heritage. On top of that,they can also experience culture first hand. For this research, we intend to identify the factors influencing youngsters to visit historical places and their perception towards visiting historical places.
This is due to the sudden increase in number of teenagers to visit historical places. Currently, we are mainly focused on the teenagers. The objective of the research were: 1 . TO identify factors to investigate factors influencing youngsters to visit historical places 2. To investigate the youngsters’ perception of the sites in relation to preserving their heritage. The following questions were specifically addressed in the study: 1. What are the factors influencing teenagers to visit heritage sites? 2. What is the teenagers’ perception of the sites in relation to preserve their own her LITERATURE REVIEW
The world’s fastest growing industry nowadays is the tourism industry with the expanding numbers of people traveling abroad or local. It is as high as 40% increase of international tourist movements compare to years before. Thus, making the cultural tourist market as one of the most rapidly growing, accounting in the business. According to United Nations World Tourism Organization (JOINT), there were 1. 03 billion international tourist arrivals worldwide in 2012. In comparison, there was around 5. 0% increased of tourist number in 2013 which made the new total number of tourist arrivals to 1. 7 billion (2014). There are a lot of reasons to encourage people to travel. Higher salaries is the main reason to push the development of heritage tourism. People can use part of their salaries for their holidays when they do not have economical pressure. Not only that, traveling promotes family activities that help to enhance family unity. Experiencing time together is a compensate for parents who are busy with work in ordinary days. Moreover, traveling to historical places is a dream for most of young travelers, they can immerse themselves in diverse cultures.
To further understand why people travel, the push-pull theories are commonly referred to (Danna 1 977,1 981; Crampon 1 979 ;Caviar and Cursory 2002). A force which make people wish to escape from daily activities through entertainment or relaxation is the push factors while the pull factor such as the environment, landscape, monuments etc. Is what drags them to a new location. When tourist have desire to travel, it shows that push motivations related to tourist wishes while pull motivations are related to destination attributes. (Chaw, Macabre & usual, 1 995; Danna, 1981; Oh, usual & Weaver, 1995).
With the help of heritage tourism, tourists could explore and get better understanding on region heritage. It can be an opportunity for visitors to get a new viewpoint about culture. It is a chance to protect heritages by turning the attention of people. According to National Trust for Historic Preservation, “Traveling is to experience the places, artifacts, and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past and present. It includes cultural, historic and natural resources” (2008). The growth in tourism is increasing in the interest of history,heritage and culture.
It is no doubt that there are a lot of famous magazines that introduce about emphasize on American cultural heritage through publications such as History American Heritage, America’s Civil War, Civil War Times, American History, American History Illustrated, Early American Life, Historic Preservation, and Second World War Historic Traveler and Westphalia magazine,The Americans can learn and understand more about their true history, heritage and culture from these magazines (Hall & Zeppelin, 1990). There are many types of tourism such as customers, industrial tourism and heritage tourism.
One of the popular tourism industries is heritage tourism because people want to see more different culture. There are so many heritage sites around the world. For example, Great Pyramid of Gaza. It is one of most famous heritage sites in the world. According to Wisped: This pyramid is the oldest and largest pyramid among the three pyramids in Gaza Necropolis. It is also the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and it is the only one pyramid that still remains largely intact. Some speleologists claim that the Great Pyramid of Gaza was originally built as a mob in the late 2500 CE.
Its construction took over 10 to 20 years to complete. There are a lot of scientific and alternative theories stated about the construction techniques of the Great Pyramid’s. This is why the place is very important in the aspect of historical and architecture (“Great These new experiences might be attractive to people in many different ways. The main reason of why people love to visit heritage sites is that heritage visiting has many advantages such as educational experiences, recreational experiences and heritage experiences.
From the educational perspective, cost people visit heritage sites and museums for enhancing their knowledge skills and learning something new about history and culture. Let is agreed that heritage tourism is more satisfying and memorable than other tourism because one can gain more experiences and see more culture. Many heritage visitors can find their hobbies and preference in heritage sites if they choose where to travel and what to experience (Timothy. 2011 Therefore, there are many reasons to attract people to visit historical places. METHODOLOGY Us objects research were collected through an online questionnaire.
Some related articles were researched from the internet and online questionnaire was designed. The questions were asked based on the two research areas which are,’invent are the factors influencing youngsters to visit historical cities? ” and “What are the youngsters perception of the sites In relation to preserving their heritage” . This research was carried out in January 2015. This questionnaire was administered to random participants among 60 people. The main reason why the survey was carried out is because this method can get a lot of information in a quick spend of time.
The samples comprising 23 ale participants and 37 female participants with the age range from 13-24 years old. Most of them are from Malaysia . There were a total of 62% of local students and 38% of international students. Instruments The survey of this research was conducted through a questionnaire, which was administered online through Google Forms, Watchstrap, Backbone and Weight. The questionnaire contained 15 questions and consisted of 2 sections. The first section was for the demographic questions while the questions for the second part were created specifically to answer the research questions.
Participants were also asked about the factors that influencing youngsters to visit historical cities. Responses were indicated via 6 dichotomous or two-point questions,8 Multiple choice questions and 1 scaled question. Procedure rest TO carry out the survey, 1 5-question questionnaire was prepared and the questionnaire was administered through various social media platforms such as backbone,Watchstrap, Weight and Google Forms collected the data from respondents and also sent the questionnaire to some students in Tailor’s University.
This method is flexible because the participants can answer the river during their leisure time. The method called ‘random sampling had been used. The data collection was conducted within 2 days during weekdays and we had received 53 responses. DATA ANALYSIS General Question (Demographic Data) Based on the online survey,there were 60 responses,consisting of 23 male at 38% and 37 female at 62%. According the survey,45 participants are between 19-21 years old. The second highest was the participants who are between 16-18 years old.
There were 9 of them. Meanwhile, 6 out 60 respondents are around 22-24 years old. According to the survey, 37 participants are Malaysian, 10 participants are Indonesian and 9 participants are Chinese-Meanwhile, 5 participants have other nationalities and 1 participant is from Manner. Specific Questions Figure 1 shows the different types of travel destinations that participants prefer. From the pie chart above, there were 60 responses while there was 1 respondent who did not answer this question. 0 respondents preferred adventure, 1 9 respondents preferred city, 1 2 respondents preferred National Park, 7 respondents preferred heritage, and 1 respondent chose ‘Other’. Based on the bar chart above, most of the respondents like to visit heritage sites. 8 respondents chose ‘Yes’ and 11 respondents chose ‘No’. However, there were 12 respondents who are not sure whether they like to visit heritage sites. From the bar graph, it can be concluded that majority of the respondents have visited heritage sites. 3 respondents visited heritage sites before; however, there was 8 respondents who did not visit heritage sites before. According to the pie chart, 28 respondents like to visit historical places because they want to know more about the culture while 21 respondents want to get more information of the place. 9 respondents want to taste the rarities of food and 2 respondents chose other reason. Figure 5 shows which heritage sites that the respondents had visited. Most respondents had visited Malice in Malaysia.
There were 31 respondents in total who chose this option. Other than that, 13 respondents had visited The Great Wall in China. 2 respondents had visited Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy while 2 respondents had visited Tax Mall. In addition, there were 8 respondents had visited other historical sites which were not mentioned in the question naira. Figure 6 shows the ratings from the respondents for their last trip to historical places. As this was a scaled question, the respondents were asked to rate from 1 is very good to 5 is not interesting at all.
Only 5 respondents felt that their last trip to historical place was very good. 18 respondents felt the trip was quite good while there was also 18 respondents who remained neutral as they felt the trip was not really good and not boring too. On the other hand, 14 respondents felt the trip was boring and 3 respondents were not interested at all. According to the bar chart above, 51 respondents would recommend their friends to visit historical places or heritage sites. On the contrary,9 exponents would not recommend their friends to visit any historical places.
Figure 8 demonstrates 43 respondents get the information of historical places through internet while 10 respondents get the information from textbooks. The data in the above pie chart also shows that 2 respondents get the information from newspaper and 4 respondents get the information through other way. Figure 9 shows that 24 respondents think that teenagers like to visit historical places. However, 36 respondents think that teenagers do not like to visit historical places. Figure 10 shows that 53 respondents think that preserving heritage is important. 1 respondent feel that preserving heritage is not important.
On the other hand, 6 respondents think that preserving heritage maybe important. According to the pie chart, 31 respondents felt that preserving heritage sites is important in order to persuade the young generation to appreciate their culture and heritage. 21 respondents think that by preserving heritage can teach the youngsters about the past history. 8 respondents think that this effort can help to boost economic sector in tourism industry. 2 respondents chose other reasons. The pie chart presents the responses on whether the government plays an important role in preserving heritage sites or not.