The importance of a thorough assessment is stressed in order to make an accurate diagnosis and to develop a treatment plan that will be effective for the client. Treatments included therapy models such as individual therapy, group therapy, solution-focused therapy and cognitive- behavioral therapy alone and in conjunction with pharmacological agents. The effectiveness of these treatment options are examined to determine how effective they are in paraphernalia with commodities. The need for additional research on the long-term effects of pharmacological agents was established. Annotated Bibliography De Oliver Junior, W.
M. , & Ninjas Abed, C. H. (2010), Unconventional sexual behaviors and their associations with physical, mental and sexual health ramset’s: a study in 18 large Brazilian cities. Revisit Brasilia De Squattier, 32(3), 264-274. This is a study of unconventional sexual behavior and socio. Demographic and health parameters. This was a self-administered questionnaire of 7,022 individuals with and without unconventional sexual behaviors. Results revealed that more men (52. 3%) than women (30. 4%) presented with unconventional sexual behaviors. Fetishism and voyeurism were the two most common behaviors.
They concluded that there was a connection between unconventional sexual behaviors and poor health status and low educational levels. This is helpful in examining the etiology of paraphernalia. Fedora, J. P. (2008). Sadism, sadomasochism, sex, and violence. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(10), 637-646. Fedora correlates the current theories regarding the possible causes of criminal sexual sadism and the resulting diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. Efforts are made to understand motivation, patterns, physiology and neurological factors in these interactions.
The author concluded that sexual sadism was a heterogeneous occurrence and that it was necessary to strive to understand the ways sadistic interest develops in order to aid in future development of effective treatments. Frizz, K. , Neediness Kansas, V. , Oarswoman, V. , Mango Kumar, G. , & Aerogram, T. M. (2014). Treatment of fetishism with maltreatment: a case report. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 867-68. DOI:10. 101 6/j. JP. 201 3. 1 1. 006. Fetishism is an identified sexual disorder for which there are few treatments available. These authors explore the case of a 40 year old man with a women’s underwear fetish.
The individual had combine diagnosis of alcohol and drug use. The client was treated with maltreatment and effectively maintained emission of fetishism and the commodities. The authors concluded that maltreatment was successful and held the position its potential use for treatment in future cases. Garcia, F. D. , & Tuba, F. (2011). Current concepts in the pharmacopoeia of paraphernalia. Drugs 71, no. 6, 771-790. Interest regarding the treatment of paraphernalia has grown over the past several years leading to new concepts in treatment. Treatments such as antidepressants, hormonal treatments, and psychotherapy have been proposed.
Garcia and Tuba reviewed the evidence presented for these treatment options and included that paraphernalia have marked pathological dimensions which were responsive to treatment. Long term research is still needed to confirm long term treatment effectiveness and side effects. It is apparent from the evidence presented that these disorders are under researched. Gordon, H. (2008). The treatment of paraphernalia: An historical perspectives. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 18(2), 79-87. Eddied. 1002/cab. 687. paraplegic disorders are not new and have been present throughout history.
Gordon explores the historical treatment of paraphernalia including approaches such as racial and pharmacological castration. Gordon discusses the recent use of Latinizing hormone releasing Zionists in pharmacological castration and the varied effectiveness. He concludes that science needs to become stronger in defining paraphernalia in order to better assess and treat them. This article provides insight into centuries of paraplegic behaviors and historical treatments. Guatemalan, J. T. , Martin, C. V. , & Ruder, J. (201 1). A solution-focused approach to offertories. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 30(1), 59-72. DOI: 10. 1 521/just. 011. 30. 1. 59. Offertories is a paraphernalia in which an individual as urges to rub their genitals against others without their consent. Guatemalan, Martin and Ruder offer a case example which illustrates the approach of solution-focused therapy as a treatment option. Unlike previously utilized problem focused therapy, solution-focused therapy is strength-based focusing on the client’s potential and is a collaborative approach during the change process. Though the case example was promising, there were limitations to the example which cannot be applied to all clients. Further study is needed to determine effectiveness.
Hawkins, K. , & Zambia, B. (2014). Adult baby/diaper lovers: An exploratory study of an online community sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43(5), 863-877. DOI:1 0. 1 007/510508-013-0241-7. One type of paraphernalia is the adult baby/ diaper lover (ABDUL) fetish. Hawkins and Zambia found in an exploratory study of 1 ,934 individuals who belonged to an ABDUL online community discovered that 72% of participants participated in this fetish for sexual arousal. They recommend that clinicians and researchers be cautious in making assumptions regarding individuals who practice ABDUL activities.
Most individuals seemed comfortable with their sexuality and their relationships tit others. Understanding persons with BID- could possibly shed light on individual sexuality whether it is typical or atypical. Howsoever, J. , & Van deer Veer, E. (2008). Side Effects of Pharmacopoeia on Bone with Long-Acting Gondolier Agonies Tortellini for Paraphernalia. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5(3), 626-630 There are only a few studies of the effects of libido inhibitors in the treatment of paraphernalia. These authors examine a case study of 35 year old male treated with long-acting gondolier for paraphernalia.
This did produce decreased sexuality but various side effects were present including a large mount of bone loss. They concluded that long-term drug regimens as part of the treatment of paraphernalia should be reconsidered and researched further. Label, A. , Burger, D. , Bradford, J. M. W. , Lad, M. & Testier, P. (2012). Familial paraphernalia: A pilot study with the construction of sonograms. SIRS Psychiatry, Volvo. 2012, Article 692813, p 1-9. DOI:10. 5402/201 2/692813. Languorous, N. , & Sets, M. (2006). Exhibitionist’s and voyeuristic behavior in a Swedish national population survey. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35(4), 437. Ii: 1007/ assess-006-9042-6. L angstrom and Sets conducted a study of self-reported sexual arousal revolving around exhibitionist’s and voyeuristic behaviors. In a random study of 2,450 individuals 3. 1 % reported arousal by exposing themselves to others and 7. 7% reported sexual arousal from spying on others having sex. Both exhibitionism and voyeurism were examined for association with multiple variables. The study concluded that paraplegic behaviors were more prevalent in males with the presence of psychological problems, a lower level of satisfaction in life, increased drug and alcohol use, and increased sexual activity interest.
Increased sexual interest included increased sexual ratters and sexual arousal, masturbation, pornography, and increased likelihood of having a same-sex sexual partners. They concluded that the results were consistent with other research in that men with exhibitionism and voyeurism had increased odds of reporting other atypical sexual behavior. Lawrence, A. A (2009). Transgender in anonymousness males as a paraplegic phenomenon: Implications for case conceptualization and treatment. Sexual & Relationship Therapy 24(2), 188-206. DOI:1 0. 1080/14681990902937340.
It is important to understand the meaning and significance of transgender. This can assist therapists in assessing, diagnosing and developing effective treatment plans. Lawrence holds that by addressing non-homosexual male transgender as a paraplegic disorder allows the therapist to be more empathetic to the heightened passion that these individuals possess. Lawrence concluded that a therapist’s understanding that these feelings are not completely consistent with transsexuals can help clients experience less shame and greater self- acceptance. Unmans, M. A. , Harvests, P. , Rainbow, L. & Alison, L. J. (2013). paraphernalia: definition, diagnosis and treatment. Priories Reports, 5, 36. DOI:1 0. 1 2703/PA-36. Controversy remains concerning paraplegic disorders and the defining of what is normal and what is deviant. Some cultures are accepting and find some deviant actions normal versus other cultures. The authors in this article discuss these issues and the recent progress that has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of paraphernalia. They concluded that the issue of determining what is normal and what is deviant is a challenge when applying the term paraphernalia.
This article is helpful in understanding the need for a standard norm. Marten, R. J. (2011). Screwing the pooch: Legitimizing accounts in a zoophytical on-line community. Deviant Behavior, 32(10), 918-943. DOI:10. 1080/01639625. 2010. 538356. It is not uncommon for individuals who participate in atypical behaviors to attempt to justify them. Marten seeks to expand research that looks at how deviant individuals are utilizing the internet in communicating the accounts of their behavior in an effort to neutralize them. Data from a study of 4983 on-line individual posts resulting from 87 different discussion threads.
Results from the study suggested that individuals who posted to these threads routinely justified their behaviors by attempting to neutralize them through appeals of enlightenment, claims of cultural diffusion, and naturalization by comparison to other actions such as criminal acts. Marshall, W. L. , Marshall. LEE. , & Saran, G. A. (2006). Strategies in the treatment of paraphernalia: A critical review. Annual Review of Sex Research, 171 (1), 162-182. Just like any other disorder, treatments have developed and proposed for paraplegic disorders.
Marshall discusses that the clinician should determine what needs to be addressed beginning with an exploration of the individual’s history. Obtaining a deeper understanding of the individual also helps to identify difficulties that need to be faced and addressed as part of the treatment plan. Marshall indicates that reliability and validity in the diagnosis of paraphernalia among sex offenders appears to be poor. He attributes this to the variances in interpretation of the criteria and inferences of the behaviors which leaves the door open for error.
He stresses the need to evaluate individuals for multiple paraplegic disorders. This article offers insight into the assessment of disorders. Milkiest, H. (2005). A history of bestiality. Anthracnose, 1;22. In this article, Milkiest provides a history of bestiality through the ages. Included in this historical account are art, folklore, religion, law and actual behaviors based on facts and opinion found within literary text. Milkiest demonstrates how art from as far back as the Fourth Glacial Age depicted humans and animals having sexual relations.
Discussion included biblical references and examples and discussed how this behavior was often part of religious ceremonies. Macros, A, Ghostwriter, M. , Hacker, S. , Nietzsche, J. (2011). Psychopathology and sexual sadism. Law & Human Behavior (Springer Science & Business Media B. V. ), 35(3), 188-199. DOI:1 0. 1 007/assess-010-9221-9. There are several common characteristics between psychopathic personality disorder and sexual sadism. These authors conducted an empirical study based on a sample Of 1 00 male sex offenders to text the construct of these two characteristics.
Indicator variables for the two characteristics made it apparent that a two-factor model was a better fit for the study. The study concluded that psychopaths and sexual sadism, though they shared characteristics, were two separate conditions. It was noted there was a similarity in that both had difficulty comprehending the offering of others but only sadists derived arousal or enjoyment from this. Opener, J. J. , & Opener, C. L. (2005). Counseling for sexual disorders. Gaithersburg, VIC): Signature Book Printing Opener and Opener heaved created a series of books intended as resources for Christian counselors.
This book is one of the series and focuses on the counseling aspect of sexual disorders. This book discusses sexual dysfunction and therapeutic techniques from a biblical perspective of morality and helps to set a standard of normal for the Christian counselor. Sexual addictions are examined and contrasted with sin, compulsion, and psychopathology. These authors conclude that individual therapy alone may not be sufficient to help an individual and recommend that therapist consider collaborative group therapy and at times pharmacological therapy.
It is stressed that the need for a thorough work up is necessary in determining the best course of treatment. Tuba, F. , De La Barr, E, Gordon, H. , Cons, p. , & Bradford, J. W. (2010). The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WAIFS) guidelines for the biological treatment of paraphernalia. World Journal of Biological psychiatry, 11(4). 604-655. 10th. 31 09/15622971003671628. The authors of this article conducted extensive research regarding the different views and appropriate treatments of paraphernalia from experts from different continents.