The study of focus determines whether current treatments for lupus are still valid including “corticosteroids, other insuppressible drugs, such as Catherine and kaleidoscopically, and adjunctive therapies, including dialysis and renal transplantation” (Leander et al. ). The other goal of this study was to find whether the effects of B-cell depletion with ritualism for patients that received the previous treatments of misrepresentation but they failed resulting in the returning of symptoms involved with systemic lupus.
Introduction Lupus nephritis is a kidney disorder that is a complication of systemic lupus erythrocyte’s. Systemic lupus erythrocyte’s (SALE) is an autoimmune disease which means there is a problem with the body’s immune system. Normally, the immune system helps protect the body from harmful substances. But in patients with an autoimmune disease, the immune system cannot tell the difference between harmful substances and healthy ones. As a result, the immune system attacks otherwise healthy cells and tissue.
SALE may damage different parts of the kidney, leading to interstitial environmentalist’s nephritis, and nephritic chemisorptions contemporaneous GNU. SALE has a different name when it involves the inflammation of the kidneys, Lupus Nephritis. Since lupus nephritis involves is the inflammation of the kidneys, it effects the kidney’s ability to filter the waste from the blood and can be so damaging that a kidney transplant would be needed.
Also, the inflammation of the kidneys can cause “an increase in blood pressure, inflammation of the nervous system and the brain, which can cause memory problems, confusion, headaches and strokes”(Lupus foundation). If these damages continue, it may rapidly worsen to kidney failure. Lupus nephritis affects approximately 3 out of every 10,000 people (Lupus foundation). In children with SALE, about half will have some form or degree of kidney involvement (Lupus Foundation). More than half of patients have not had other symptoms of SALE when they are diagnosed with lupus nephritis (Lupus Foundation).
SALE is most common in women ages 20 – 40 (Lupus foundation). Like previously mentioned, lupus nephritis is the inflammation of the kidney(s) and it branches off of systemic lupus. Individuals with lupus nephritis will experience possible weight gain, high blood pressure, dark urine, or swelling around the eyes, legs, ankles, or fingers. However, some people with lupus may not experience any of these symptoms and urine tests must be conducted in order to confirm the individual has lupus. Urine samples will show whether there will be a foamy appearance to the urine and/or whether there is blood and protein in it.
Blood and protein in the urine is an apparent sign of kidney damage and the issue must be taken care of as soon as possible in order to prevent further damage. Furthermore, there are two other tests that can confirm if an individual has lupus. One is a blood test. The kidneys remove waste materials like creating and urea from the blood. Fifth blood contains high levels of these substances, kidney function is declining. Second, a kidney biopsy can be inducted. A biopsy is a procedure to obtain a tissue sample for examination with a microscope.
To obtain a sample of your kidney tissue, a doctor will insert a long needle through the skin. Examining the tissue with a microscope can confirm the diagnosis of lupus nephritis and help to determine how far the disease has progressed. Treatment of lupus nephritis depends on the symptoms and test results. Medicines called corticosteroids can decrease swelling and inflammation by suppressing the immune system. Additional insuppressible drugs related to Cancer and drugs used to prevent ejection of organ transplants may also be used.
In severe cases, a doctor may prescribe kaleidoscopically (Cottony, Nooses) or encephalopathy (Select). Newer experimental treatments include a drug called ritualism (Raritan) (Leander et al. ). Methods For the journal article that we choose to research and learn about was about b-cell depletion via ritualism treatments. All of the patients that were being used in this testing had to meet several criteria; they were treated on urgent basis, other insuppressible treatments were not working, and coal hospitals approved of the testing on the patients.
The groups were tested in several different ways ‘The first six patients (patients 1-6) were treated with two infusions of 500 MGM ritualism (half dose) and infusions of 750 MGM kaleidoscopically under oral steroid cover (2 x predisposing 60 MGM for 5 days) given 2 weeks apart. Subsequently the patients were treated with a similar protocol but with full-dose ritualism (2 x 1000 MGM) and intravenous interpersonally (2 x 250 MGM) instead of oral steroids. Two patients received ritualism monetary: one had an allergy to hospitalized (patient 1 2) and the other patient refused to have the drug (patient 9).
Patients were allowed to continue predisposing and hydrochloride’s. Other inexpressiveness were stopped at baseline except for two patients who continued their Catherine (patient 1 5 started at baseline on 100 MGM; patient 16 continued on 150 MGM)” (M. J. Leander et al. ). The clinic kept check ups on the patients every month to two months in there lupus clinics, they took many blood test during these periods to test if the initial medication as well as the other patients medications. They were rated on a scale of A to E, A being the most active and E being the least active. The patients’ routine full blood count, serum creating, CO (laser enfeeblement), total mucilaginous and adds binding (Shield Diagnostics, Dundee, UK; normal units/ml) and urine protein to creating ratio were tested in the hospital routine laboratories”(Leander et al. ). Rest Its The methods previously mentioned showed that the patients obviously did not react to the current methods of treatment for lupus. The misrepresentation and the corticosteroids did not provide the desired action of reducing inflammation in the kidneys; therefore, they were introduced to this innovative treatment.
In the end, the patients did see a significant decrease in inflammation which means that B-lymphocyte depletion is a valid treatment for reducing inflammation in lupus patients. Discussion There are numerous drugs and misrepresentation one can take in order to improve the symptoms of lupus. However, two studies have shown that by depleting a certain cell directly linked to lupus, one can drastically improve their condition. In the first study conducted by Leonardo, Cambridge, Edwards, Orenstein, and Ginsberg (2005), they depleted a-cells in patients with systemic lupus erythrocyte’s.
These researchers depleted the B lymphocytes in individuals by using ritual, an antibody that is effective in depleting normal and malignant B lymphocytes. Researchers initially began using ritual for rheumatoid arthritis which mainly inflames the joints in mainly elderly individuals. Since lupus involves the inflammation of the kidneys, researchers sought to discover whether ritual would reduce inflammation involved with lupus. In the first study, twenty-four patients were reared with an average age being 28. 9 years and the mean disease duration was 7. 8 years (Leander et al).
The patients were divided into groups and each group received a different dosage of ritual. In the end, the B-cell depletion in all the groups occurred and the researchers claim that B-cell depletion may be a very useful addition to the range of therapies available for patients with very active lupus (Leander et al). The second study was conducted by Chain, Midair, and Schoolchild (1999) using the same methods of curing lupus; however, the study used animals instead of humans. Although they used animals, the results were concurrent with those in the previous study using humans.
The results indicate that B cells/lymphocytes are essential in promoting systemic autoimmunity (Chain et al. ). The results provide further rationale for B cell suppression as therapy for systemic lupus erythrocyte’s. Future Discussions Overall, Lupus is a disease associated with the inflammation of the kidneys and it occurs due to the malfunction of the immune system. Furthermore, patients may suffer from other symptoms of lupus unrelated to kidney function. Such symptoms can include arthritis, fevers, Castro-intestinal disturbances, headaches, fatigue, and fluid in the joints.