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London Underground Design Guide

London Underground Signs manual Issue 4 MAYOR OF LONDON Transport for London Contents London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Overview Throughout the London Underground system, we have a proven, highly successful sign system which clearly identifies us and guides our customers safely and efficiently. Good signing is vital for London Underground to project a consistent, modern and professional corporate image, and is essential to the smooth running of stations. The detailed information in this manual represents the culmination of thorough research, design and development.

By careful and consistent application of the standards documented, we will further enhance the image of the Underground. Stations on the Underground system are diverse in layout and architecture, and as such, this manual cannot contain signing solutions for every station. It will, however, establish the set principles to enable effective and consistent solutions to be applied across the network. Basic elements The customer journey Specific elements Index Overview Contents Back 2 London Underground overview London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002

Good signing assists our customers in negotiating the Underground system and minimises the need to consult station staff. This is the ideal for maximising operational efficiency, for creating the best impression and for gaining customer satisfaction. The journey from station entrance to the platform, from train to train, or to the station exit is often extremely complicated. In the enclosed, confined and busy environment of the Underground, lack of clear directions can cause considerable anxiety. The principle aim in signing must always be to meet the information needs of the customer. 1 of 2 Overview Contents Back 3

London Underground overview London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The design, layout and content of each and every sign is a considered asset to enable London Underground to project an image of efficiency, consistency and modernity. Compromising the design or production quality would weaken the effectiveness of our signing and our corporate image. To support our world famous identity, we need to make sure that we install signage which conforms to this Standard, and to ensure that any necessary modification is properly controlled. 2 of 2 Overview Contents Back 4 1. 0 Basic elements

London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 1. 1 1. 1. 1 1. 1. 2 1. 1. 3 1. 2 1. 3 1. 3. 1 1. 3. 2 1. 3. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1. 5. 1 1. 5. 2 1. 6 1. 7 1. 8 1. 9 1. 10 1. 11 1. 12 1. 13 1. 14 Roundel Background areas Roundel silhouette Background colours Colour Lettering Standard sizes and colours Viewing distance chart Line spacing Fitting messages onto panels Arrows and their direction Arrows Placement of arrows Symbols and pictograms Way out Restricted sign layouts Signing for mobility-impaired customers Headroom restrictions Switchable signs Panel sizes Combining signs and minimum height Combining signs and layout details

The basic elements of the London Underground sign system – the roundel, the house and line colours and the New Johnston typeface – are also the building blocks of the corporate identity. The value of the roundel itself can hardly be over-estimated. It is one of the world’s best-known symbols and carries a tremendous weight of goodwill. In order to preserve its value, the rules in this section for its reproduction and application must be strictly adhered to. Colours are similarly important.

Approved NCS colour references should always be used when specifying house and line colours, see section 1. 2. Colour samples are provided in the separate ‘London Underground colour standards for identity and information’ booklet. The Johnston typeface is representative of the Underground’s ‘tone of voice’. Its friendly yet authoritative appearance has been a familiar and reassuring sight for decades. Basic elements To print this section print pages 5-46 Contents Back 5 1. 1 Roundel London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002

Basic form This is the basic form of the Underground roundel. The proportions, colours and the exact letter-form, size and spacing of the lettering in the bar are unalterable. In Underground applications, the roundel always appears with the word ‘Underground’ in the bar, except on platform roundels which display the individual station name. Standards on the exact form of platform roundels are given in section 5. 0. Reproduction Reproduction of the roundel should be made using Underground-approved roundel artwork only.

No attempt should be made to typeset the word ‘Underground’ or render it by any other means. UNDERGROUND Basic elements Contents Back 6 1. 1. 1 Background areas 62x London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The immediate area around the roundel, as indicated by the dotted line on the illustration to the right, must be kept free of any other elements of any kind – for example lettering, posters, architectural features, decorative devices and so on. 9x UNDERGROUND 43x 10x 4. 5x 53x 4. 5x Basic elements Contents Back 7 1. 1. 2 Roundel silhouette

London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 For station and platform identifiers, the silhouette roundel is an alternative to the square panel version. The choice of which roundel to use will depend on the architecture and location characteristics. The panel roundel will give greater contrast when viewed with other street or retail signing. The silhouette version is the preferred option for architecturally-sensitive locations. When a structural frame is used, this should be in proportion to the sign size and be centred on the symbol perimeter line. UNDERGROUND Basic elements

Contents Back 8 1. 1. 3 Background colours 1 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Ideally, the roundel should be placed on a white square background 1 In practice, this will not always be possible, eg when incorporating the roundel within wall cladding, so it is permitted to place the roundel on a neutral-coloured background whose tonal value is not darker than the 30% black tint shown on this page. Darker backgrounds 2 detract from the impact of the roundel, as do coloured backgrounds 3 Under no circumstances should it be placed directly onto such backgrounds.

When using a silhouette roundel it is not permissible for the counters 4 to vary from the background colours. UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND 10% Approved backgrounds 20% 30% 2 3 4 UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND UNDERGROUND 40% 50% 60% Incorrect backgrounds Basic elements Contents Back 9 1. 2 Colour London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Line colours provide a direct visual to the customer’s initial point of reference – the Tube Map – as well as to other diagrams and service information.

They also help non-English speakers find their way around the system. As well as the use of Underground blue and red as primary corporate colours on specific elements such as the roundel, entrance fascia and directional sign lettering, Underground ‘line’ colours are expressed as a strip above line directional signs, and on the platform frieze. Specific colours also have additional uses for safety signs and notices. Baker Street Portland Euston Street Warren Street Regent’s Park Oxford Circus Tottenham Court Road Green Park Piccadilly Circus St. James’s Park Euston Square Euston

Angel Farringdon Barbican Russell Square Goodge Street Holborn Moorgate Chancery Lane Covent Garden Leicester Square Charing Cross Mansion House St. Paul’s Bank Cannon Street Blackfriars 1 of 4 Basic elements Contents Back 10 1. 2 Colour London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The house colours of the Underground are red and blue, but there are other colours, particularly line colours, which contribute to the identity. The matrix on the following page details the various applications of all the colours currently being used on the Underground, showing where common uses exist.

It should be noted that quality control is vital to ensure accurate colour matching, and that checks must be carried out during manufacture and on delivery of signs. Colour samples and references can be found in the separate ‘London Underground colour standards for identity and information’ booklet. A4-size NCS colour swatches can be purchased from: Edgebrite Limited 60b High Street Bridgnorth Shropshire WV16 4DX Telephone 01746 767500 or Langford & Hill 38-40 Warwick Street London W1R 6LS Telephone 020 7437 9945

The colours for use on DTLR signs, ISO/BSI standard signs etc, should follow the standards established by those organisations. Future developments in the Underground rail network may necessitate the adoption of additional colours, which will be incorporated into this manual as appropriate. 2 of 4 Basic elements Contents Back 11 1. 2 House colour Line colour strip Roundel Fascia background Directional signs lettering Way out Supplementary signs Emergency signs National Rail denotation National Rail interchange Docklands interchange 3mm dividing line Sign case and supports Non-communicative sign parts

Basic elements Piccadilly line Underground dark blue NCS S 3560-R80B Central line Underground red NCS S 1085-Y80R Victoria line Underground light blue NCS S 2060-B District line Underground green NCS S 2565-G Circle line Underground yellow NCS S 0580-Y10R Metropolitan line Underground magenta NCS S 4050-R30B Bakerloo line Underground brown NCS S 4050-Y50R East London line Underground orange NCS S 0585-Y30R Hammersmith & City line Underground pink NCS S 0550-R10B Northern line Underground black NCS S 9000-N Jubilee line Underground light grey NCS S 4005-R80B

LUL colours Contents Back 3 of 4 12 Waterloo & City line Underground turquoise NCS S 1040-B80G Sign frames Underground dark grey NCS S 7010-R90B Underground white NCS S 0500-N Underground safety blue NCS S 3065-R90B Underground safety red NCS S 1085-Y90R London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 1. 2 TfL mode colours London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 NCS S 4010-G30Y NCS S 0580-G30Y NCS S 2050-B50G NCS S 1070-Y20R NCS S 1085-Y80R NCS S 2060-R70B NCS S 3560-R80B

London Underground London Buses Docklands Light Rail London Trams Public Carriage Office Victoria Coach Station Street Management London River Services NCS S 2060-B 4 of 4 Basic elements Contents Back 13 1. 3 Lettering London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 New Johnston All lettering within the sign system is carried out using New Johnston Medium, a modern adaptation of the historic Johnston typeface, devised in 1906 by Edward Johnston for London Transport’s exclusive use. New Johnston is a legible typeface with a large ‘x’ height and being heavier in weight, is easily read on signs.

Lettering is in upper and lower case, with an initial capital letter at the start of sign messages and for proper names, except for station names on roundels, fascias and friezes which are upper-case letters only. For further guidance on these aspects, see sections 2. 0 and 5. 0. The second alphabet shown is for illuminated use only. The lettering will appear yellow out of black in the case of ‘Way out’ and reversed out of a background colour in the case of switchable signs, as described in the relevant sections. For sign use, specific rules of letter and word spacing have been developed to maximise legibility.

Contractors are not permitted to digitise these typefaces or vary the letter spacing in any way. ABCDEFGHIJ ABCDEFGHIJ KLMNOPQR KLMNOPQR STUVWXYZ STUVWXYZ abcdefghijkl abcdefghijkl mnopqrstuv mnopqrstuv wxyz wxyz 1234567890 1234567890 ? &. ,:;'()/? &. ,:;'()/New Johnston Medium New Johnston Medium illuminated use only Basic elements Contents Back 14 1. 3. 1 Standard sizes and colours London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The lettering used throughout the directional system is New Johnston Medium in upper and lower-case letters. For directional sign use, the lettering is available in eight standard sizes, shown on the next page.

No other sizes may be used on directional signing. On directional signs, lettering is always in Underground dark blue on Underground white panels, with the exception of ‘Way out’ signs, which display Underground yellow lettering on an Underground black patch. For colour specifications see section 1. 2. For details of ‘Way out’ signs, see section 1. 7. Ax Cap height x height Basic elements Contents Back 15 1. 3. 2 Viewing distance chart London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 This chart shows the distance at which certain sizes of lettering can be read by a person with average eyesight.

The data obtained should be used to determine the minimum letter size for any sign. Other considerations, such as architectural features or visual continuity, may influence the final choice of letter size, but the optimum size will be used wherever possible. Cap height in millimetres Type sizes 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6. 2 8. 3 12 16. 2 24. 5 32. 5 Sign distance in metres 49 60. 8 Size E Size F Size G Size E Size F Size G Size D Size D Size C Size C Size B Size B Size A Size A Size A+ Size A+ Cap height 206 x height Margins 150 450 166 120 300 110 80 00 83 60 150 55 41 28 21 40 30 20 15 100 75 50 38 Basic elements Contents Back 16 1. 3. 3 Line spacing London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Line spacing is based on the height of the lower-case letter ‘x’. One ‘x’ is the standard minimum between two lines of information. When information in more than one size of lettering is used, the larger ‘x’ height should be used to separate the two lines of differing size. Linespacing principles Linespacing Linespacing principles 1 of 2 Basic elements Contents Back 17 1. 3. 3 Line spacing 1 4 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002

Correct line spacing is achieved by using the ‘x’ height of the lower-case letter as the normal minimum space between two lines of type of equal size 1 When using information in more than one size of lettering, the larger ‘x’ height is used to separate the larger size from the smaller size 2 3 4 and 5 When the message reverts to one type size only, its ‘x’ value should be used between those consecutive lines of type as the normal maximum standard. Victoria line Northbound platform 1 2 x x x x x Victoria line Northbound Victoria Oxford Circus Euston 5 x x x 2x x x x x x Victoria line Northbound platform 1 3 x x x x x Victoria line

Northbound Victoria x x x x 2x x = x height of largest letter size x = x height of secondary letter size x = x height of smallest letter size Victoria line Northbound platform 1 x x x x x 2 of 2 Basic elements Contents Back 18 1. 4 Fitting messages onto panels 2. 5x London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Signs with line colour strip On signs indicating a direction to a line, a strip of the line colour should always be included above the line message. This is a fixed depth of 50mm and runs the length of the sign panel. 50 x x Min 1. 5x Bakerloo line 2. 5x 50 x x x x Min 1. 5x Bakerloo line Eastbound platform 3 = x height of largest letter size All measurements are in millimetres 1 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 19 1. 4 Fitting messages onto panels 2. 5x London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Signs with line colour strip When two lines run together, for example District and Circle lines, the 50mm colour strip is divided in half along its length, giving a 25mm strip of each colour. In exceptional cases, for example when using the smaller type sizes F and G, the colour strip may be reduced by half. The space from the bottom of the colour strip to the baseline of the first line of type is 2x.

The value ‘x’ is always equal to the ‘x’ height of the letter size being used for the first line of the message, even though it may be followed by a second line of a larger type size. 25 x x x x Min 1. 5x District and Circle lines Westbound platform 1 2. 5x 17 x x x x x x Min 1. 5x Hammersmith & City Metropolitan and Circle lines Westbound platform 1 x = x height of largest letter size x = x height of smallest letter size All measurements are in millimetres 2 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 20 1. 4 Fitting messages onto panels 2. 5x London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 2. 5x

Signs without line colour strip The space from the top edge of the panel to the baseline of the first line of type is 2x. The value ‘x’ is always equal to the ‘x’ height of the letter size being used for the first line of the message, even though it may be followed by a second line of a larger type size. Margins Margin rules apply to all sign types and panel sizes. All directional messages are ranged left or right, according to the direction indicated by the arrow, see section 1. 5. The margin distance is equal to 2. 5x of the largest letter size used, unless ranged with other information, for example ‘Way out’ patches, see section 1. . A minimum margin of 2. 5x must also be provided at the end of the message. A minimum distance of 1. 5x must be left at the base of a sign panel. The ‘x’ value is always equal to the ‘x’ height of the largest letter size being used. The depth of the panel must be rounded off to the nearest 50mm increment. x x Min 1. 5x Tower Hill Station 2. 5x 2. 5x x x x x Min 1. 5x Tower Hill Station Tower of London 2. 5x 2. 5x x x x x x x Min 1. 5x Tower Hill Station Tower of London Tower Pier x = x height of largest letter size x = x height of smallest letter size All measurements are in millimetres 3 of 3 Back 21

Basic elements Contents 1. 5 Arrows and their direction 1 2 1 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 2 Arrows indicating direction to the left, straight ahead or down should be placed on the left-hand side of the first line of the message 1 Arrows indicating direction to the right should be placed at the right- hand side of the first line of the message 2 Sign messages should be ranged left or right according to the direction indicated by the arrow 3 Where a sign carries several messages of equal emphasis and the direction indicated is the same, only the arrow of the first message need be used.

Where one sign message is subsidiary to another and is in a smaller size of lettering, an arrow should be included only with the main message. Victoria line Victoria line Victoria line Victoria line Victoria line Left arrow usage 3 Right arrow usage Victoria line Victoria line Basic elements Contents Back 22 1. 5. 1 Arrows 2. 5x Min 2. 5x London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Arrows Arrows are centred both on the cap height and within the 2. 5x margin area. c Tickets Min 2. 5x 2. 5x c Tickets c = Cap height of largest letter size All measurements are in millimetres

Basic elements Contents Back 23 1. 5. 2 Placement of arrows London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Placement of arrows When positioning arrows of a 45-degree indication, great care must be taken in their use, as they have no inherent exactness and therefore are open to misinterpretation. The diagram to the right shows a situation where an arrow indicating up and left, because of a change in floor level at exit A may well be misunderstood to mean half left or towards the left to exit B The most accurate arrow to use in this situation would be the left direction, see below.

This would eliminate uncertainty of direction and ensure a consistent customer flow. When choosing and positioning directional signs, it is vital that the sign planner understands and is aware of the possible confusion caused when more than one choice of path is available. The point to remember is that the correct path must be chosen, and it may be necessary to disregard any change in floor level. Wa y ou t B A Way out Correct usage Way out Incorrect usage Basic elements Contents Back 24 1. 6 Symbols and pictograms 0. 75x Min 2. 5x London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002

Position of symbols within layouts Where symbols or pictograms are to be incorporated in directional signs, they must appear at the opposite end to the arrow. A space of 0. 75 times the ‘x’ height is inserted between symbol and text. The height of the symbol should be 1. 25 times the cap height, and centred on the cap height. Pictograms must not be longer than 2. 5 times the x height, and the height will reduce proportionally. CH Heathrow Airport Tower Hill Station 1x 1. 25x CH Charing Cross Waterloo International CH = Cap height 1 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 25 . 6 Symbols and pictograms London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 1 As directional signs within the Underground environment primarily direct to lines and platforms using names and colour, symbols and pictograms do form a primary part of directional signing. There are certain key messages, however, which must always be accompanied by a pictogram or symbol. At international interchanges, such as Heathrow, pictograms may also be used to assist non-English-speaking customers. Silverlink, must not be used on directional signing.

Pictograms 3 The function of pictograms on the Underground is to clarify sign messages for non-English-speaking customers, and to represent symbolically facilities, such as toilets. Only approved LUL pictograms may We must not confuse the role of pictograms and network be used, and these are always displayed in symbols with that of safety symbols, which are covered on the Safety signs section of this document (section 9. 0). Underground dark blue, with the exception of the ‘Information’ symbol, which appears These are defined as follows: in grey. The range of approved LUL signing pictograms is detailed on the next page.

Safety symbols 1 Safety symbols are used as the primary signing element to communicate safety messages, as required by European legislation. Symbol colour, background colour, and background shape are all used to communicate the safety message. 2 3 Network symbols 2 Network symbols are used to identify primary transport networks, such as National Rail or London Buses. These should always be displayed in the designated colour of the network, alongside the network name in standard dark blue LUL type. Symbols for individual operating companies, eg 2 of 3 Contents Back 26 Basic elements . 6 Symbols and pictograms London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Rivercraft Taxi Airport Buses (left) Buses (right) P Trams Cycles Parking Symbols to be transposed to suit directions Men Women Disabled Baby changing Pushchair Queue Change Tickets (roundel optional) Luggage Information Telephones CCTV 3 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 27 1. 7 Way out Equal London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Equal x x x The ‘Way out’ indication differs from the rest of the directional signs, in that the lettering is yellow out of a black patch of fixed proportions.

For colour specification see section 1. 2. The reasons for this difference are recognition and visibility, and the fact that most ‘Way out’ signs must be illuminated for statutory safety reasons. The use of the ‘patch’ introduces consistency in the presentation of illuminated and non-illuminated ‘Way out’ indication. Internal illumination also means that ‘Way out’ signs can be arranged for switchable operation. For further details of switchable signs, see section 1. 11. The ‘Way out’ patch can be incorporated into any sign, provided the dimensional restrictions described on this page are adhered to. Way out’ patch sizes B C D E F G 240 x 980 180 x 735 120 x 490 90 x 368 60 x 246 45 x 185 x x Way out Note: Two arrows should not be displayed on a sign unless switchable Align 50 50 x x x x x x x Way out Fenchurch Street Tower Gateway = x height of largest letter size = x height of smallest letter size All measurements are in millimetres 1 of 2 Basic elements Contents Back 28 1. 7 Way out London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Align 50 50 Top and side margins on the ranging edge of the ‘Way out’ patch are of a fixed 50mm dimension. All other margins should be a minimum of 50mm.

Other ‘Way out’ information, for example, street names and National Rail interchanges, may be combined on the same sign with a ‘Way out’ patch, as shown on this page. Other information is normally aligned with the baseline of ‘Way out’. When the information is used at a small size, or there are multiple lines, the top of the capital may be aligned with the top of the ‘Way out’ patch as shown. Examples of signs incorporating a ‘Way out’ patch are shown with more detailed layout information in section 1. 14 and in section 6. 0. Way out Align type baselines Way out Min 50 District and Circle lines

Westbound platform 1 Tower Gateway Align Way out Fenchurch Street Tower Gateway Align Align cap height with top of patch x = x height of smallest letter size 2 of 2 Basic elements Contents Back 29 1. 8 Restricted sign layouts London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Signing width restrictions Where sign widths are restricted to a degree where text heights suffer due to alignment rules, margins should be varied to allow legible type sizes as shown. Way out District and Circle lines Align elements Way out District and Circle lines Align text Basic elements Contents Back 30 1. 9

Signing for mobility-impaired customers London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Signing for people with impaired mobility should be used to mark alternative routes within Underground stations for wheelchair users, and customers with pushchairs or wheeled luggage. The signs should be used only at the point where the alternative route deviates from the usual route. Additional signs should be used to guide mobilityimpaired customers to the specific facilities along the alternative route. Signing for mobility-impaired customers uses wheelchair and pushchair pictograms. These are always used together, as shown.

The pictograms are Underground dark blue on an Underground white background. The viewing distance chart in section 6. 6 should be used in conjunction with the table provided on this page when deciding the appropriate pictogram size. The wheelchair and pushchair pictograms may be combined with directional arrows as shown. They may also be combined with descriptive messages, for example ‘Lift’ or ‘Ramp’, within the immediate vicinity of alternative facilities in order to aid recognition. When combined with directional arrows, the pictograms should be adjusted to reflect the direction indicated. 1. 5x 1. 7x 1. 5x Specified margin (2. x) Minimum specified margin (Min 2. 5x) 2x Min 1. 5x 0. 5CH Lift Contents x x 1 of 2 Basic elements Back 31 1. 9 Signing for mobility-impaired customers London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Signs for people with impaired mobility may be combined with other directional signs and ‘Way out’ signs, at the point where the alternative customer route deviates from the usual route. An exception is, for example, when two ‘Way outs’ are indicated and only one is suitable for mobility-impaired customers. In such a case, sign panels carrying the pictograms and a directional arrow should be used before the deviation point.

Where stations have several lifts, they should be letter coded as detailed in section 10. 18. Wheelchair pictogram Type sizes A+ A B C D E F G CH 206 166 110 83 55 41 28 21 x 150 120 80 60 40 30 20 15 (1. 5x) 225 180 120 90 60 45 30 23 Pushchair pictogram (1. 7x) 255 204 136 102 68 51 34 26 Margins 450 300 200 150 100 75 50 38 Victoria line Way out District and Circle lines Eastbound platform 1 Victoria line Way out 2 of 2 Basic elements Contents Back 32 1. 10 Headroom restrictions London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Where subways have extremely restricted headroom, a minimum illuminated sign depth of 150mm may be used.

Using the 50mm margin would result in an unacceptably small ‘Way out’ patch (size G). The margins must therefore be reduced to allow for E or D size ‘Way out’ patches – D being used where longer viewing distances are involved. 50 Way out 150 30 E 30 25 D* 25 Way out 150 Way out Exit 4 150 * With upper margin reduced by 7mm and lower margin by 13mm 1 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 33 1. 10 Headroom restrictions London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Where associated information aligned to exit number text would result in illegible text size, text should be increased and vertically centred within normal margin restrictions. 0 E 30 E Way out Exit 1 Cheapside Museum of London St. Bart’s Hospital F EQ x x x x x EQ 30 E 30 Way out Exit 1 Cheapside Museum of London St. Bart’s Hospital G 2 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 34 1. 10 Headroom restrictions London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Lower margins Where restricted headroom unduly affects text sizes and operational legibility, lower margins may be adjusted as shown, using standard type sizes where possible. x x x Central line 170 x x 1. 5x min Central line 155 Way out Central line Platforms 3 and 4 x 3 of 3 Basic elements Contents Back 35 1. 11

Switchable signs 1 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 50 Min 50 50 x x x Min 50 As a result of particular operational requirements, it is sometimes necessary to change the paths that customers take for interchange between other services or ‘Way out’. To do this, a style of switchable sign has been developed to be compatible with all other directional signs. Switchable ‘Way out’ and interchange information The ‘Way out’ patch has been designed in set proportions to carry an arrow either side of the message, allowing for the direction of ‘Way out’ to be switched 1 Way out Way out Way out of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 36 1. 11 Switchable signs 50 1 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 50 50 Where additional interchange or other information is switchable, this should be displayed as illuminated white text on a dark blue illuminated patch. The text must be obscured when the sign is unlit. Layout of text and arrows within the patch follow exactly the same principles for directional signs, and should be aligned to any associated ‘Way out’ text to side or above as shown 1 2 The length of the sign may vary from the set modular sizes to allow for electrical control gear.

Where a panel requires switchable arrows, the switchable panel background should revert to black, to avoid any partitions being visible on partial illumination 3 4 As the unswitched text part of the directional message will require separate illumination, the arrow to text spacing may be varied within reason to suit standard lamp lengths. Way out 2 Charing Cross Align Way out 50 Blackfriars Align Align Variable if room required for electrical control gear EQ Variable to suit unit lamp lengths 3 EQ Charing Cross 2 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 37 1. 11 Switchable signs 4

London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Switchable line information signs follow the same layout principles as already described, the only difference being a 75mm top margin to accommodate a 50mm colour strip at the top of the sign 5 6 Where switchable ‘Way out’ and directional panels are positioned side by side, the margin rules should be adjusted to allow visual alignment of elements as shown in the diagrams. 5 Charing Cross 5050 50 75 Way out Bakerloo line Align 6 75 Align Way out Bakerloo line 3 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 38 1. 11 Switchable signs London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002

Simultaneously switched directions Where switchable signs direct to several locations, which require simultaneous switching to control customer flows, the use of several large glass patches should be avoided. If a switchable ‘Way out’ is present, all other switchable arrows may be omitted, so all directions will appear linked to the single switchable arrow. No other conflicting arrows may be present on the sign. 1 1 Arrows switch between down and right. 2. 5x usual margin Way out Central line Platform 6 Buses Way out Platform 6 Central line 4 of 5 Buses Basic elements Contents Back 39 1. 11 Switchable signs

London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Independently switched directions Where switchable signs direct to several locations, which require independent switching to control customer flows, the use of several large glass patches must be avoided. Inlaid white acrylic arrows should be used in flanged aluminium panels, to allow the switchable sign to have a similar layout to unswitched equivalent. 1 2 3 Inlaid white (028) acrylic arrow Screened aluminium face 4x minimum to allow space for mini lamp units behind 50mm minimum to ensure correct level contrast between lit and unlit areas 1 2 x min 3 4 Jubilee line Bakerloo line Northern line x x 50mm min 4 Jubilee line Bakerloo line Northern line 5 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 40 1. 12 Panel sizes London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The panels of the directional sign system are based on a 50 x 50mm grid. The choice of panel size depends on: • 750×250 1000×250 1250×250 1020×240 Lettering size for optimum legibility, see section 1. 3. 2 Length of message or messages to be contained Architectural considerations, for example space available, surface decoration and so on Juxtaposition with other signs, see section 1. 4. 750×300 1000×350 1250×400 1260×1170 • • 750×500 1000×750 1250×1000 • Some scaled-down examples of panel sizes are shown on this page superimposed over the grid. Panel sizes which do not conform to the 50 x 50mm grid may be used only in exceptional circumstances, for example when incorporated into an architectural feature or printed onto wall-cladding panels. All measurements are in millimetres Scale 1:20 Basic elements Contents Back 41 1. 13 Combining signs and minimum height London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Sign panels should preferably be manufactured in one piece.

However, it will sometimes be necessary to combine separate signs, either because the overall size is too large for manufacturing processes, or because additions are made later. In these cases, panels must be of matching dimensions, either in width or depth. The minimum height for the lower edge of a ceiling fixed or hanging directional sign panel above floor level is 2. 5m. Those concerned with establishing final ceiling heights should take this into account at the design stage. Where it is unavoidable that the level of signing will fall below 2. 5m, formal dispensation must be sought. 2500 Basic elements Contents Back 42 . 14 Combining signs and layout details 1 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The following pages show examples of typical sign layouts, where directions are combined in different ways, and the general alignment principles which should be adopted to ensure layouts appear visually balanced and are easy to read. Generally, when combining sign messages, the panels should be horizontally combined to minimise the depth of the sign. This will aid sightlines and allow larger type sizes within a constrained headroom area 1 When signs are fitted to narrow walls or columns, the layout should be combined vertically 2

Way out District and Circle lines Victoria line 2 Northern line Piccadilly line Victoria line Hammersmith & City Metropolitan and Circle lines 1 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 43 1. 14 Combining signs and layout details 3 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Where panels containing text are combined with ‘Way out’ panels, the baselines of the first line of text should be aligned 4 and 3 Where the alignment of baselines will result in an unbalanced, bottom-heavy layout, the top of the directional text may be aligned with the top of the ‘Way out’ patch 5

Way out High Road Shopping Centre 4 Way out Paddington Heathrow Hammersmith & City line 5 Shopping Centre Elephant & Castle (via Shopping Centre) Way out South Bank University Imperial War Museum (via subway) 2 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 44 1. 14 Combining signs and layout details 6 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Examples 6 and 7 show two different layouts which may be adopted to convey the same information, depending on site constraints. Where height may be a problem, the horizontal version will be more suitable.

Where the sign may be partially obstructed by columns or vertical elements, the narrower format may be more suitable. Generally the horizontal version is preferred. Where exit and directional information share the same direction, the information should be ordered so that the illuminated ‘exit’ panel is at the leading end of the sign 8 7 Hammersmith & City, Metropolitan and Circle lines Eastbound platform 2 King’s Cross St. Pancras Liverpool Street Tower Hill Whitechapel Hammersmith & City Metropolitan and Circle lines Eastbound platform 2 King’s Cross St. Pancras Liverpool Street Tower Hill Whitechapel 8

Central line Westbound platform 1 3 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 45 1. 14 Combining signs and layout details 9 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Where one sign panel containing several lines of text is horizontally combined with a sign of a single text line, the primary text line baselines should be aligned, in this case the lines containing the arrows 9 and 10 Metropolitan line Northbound platform 1 Lift 10 Metropolitan line Northbound platform 1 Lift 4 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 46 1. 14 Combining signs and layout details 11 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002

Where a series of signs appear along a platform or passageway, with different levels and quantities of information, we should strive to maintain a consistent format, adjusting the order of information to suit, providing the clarity of the sign message is not compromised. In examples 11 and 12 the layout of the Underground line elements has been adjusted to group logically by direction, the Northern and Victoria line in the bottom example being clearly separate from the other elements. It should be noted in sign example 11 that the fire equipment point is on the platform immediately below the sign.

Way out Trains Hammersmith & City Metropolitan and Circle lines Piccadilly line Victoria line 12 Northern line Victoria line Hammersmith & City Metropolitan and Circle lines Way out King’s Cross St. Pancras 5 of 5 Basic elements Contents Back 47 The customer journey London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 2. 0 External signage 3. 0 Ticket hall signing 4. 0 Platform finding 5. 0 Platform signing 6. 0 Exit from platform 7. 0 Emergency exits 8. 0 Exit from station Customer journey To print this section print pages 47-48 Contents Back 48 The customer journey

London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 Our customers perceive the Underground as a difficult and stressful environment. Without correct signing and information, the possibility of making a wrong decision about line, direction or interchange is increased and stress levels will rise accordingly. This section of the manual covers the requirements of specific station areas as a trail of information, from entering a station through to exiting at the end destination. For clarity, only the primary direction signing required for customers to pass through the system is described in this section.

Other, more specific areas, such as evacuation and safety signing, which are relevant to all areas of the station, are covered in section 9. 0. Customer journey Contents Back 49 2. 0 External signage London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 6. 1 2. 6. 2 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 Examples Elements Panel version principles Pole-mounted silhouette version Wall-mounted silhouette version Fascia principles Lettering sizes Position of lettering Positioning of signs Shared facilities Heritage stations There are two versions of the roundel which may be used, the panel and the silhouette.

The choice of roundel will depend on the architecture and location characteristics. Some existing silhouette roundels may also be restored if they are of heritage interest, or considered to be intrinsic to the building. The panel roundel will give greater contrast when viewed with other street or retail signing. The silhouette version is the preferred option for architecturally-sensitive locations. At interchange stations where the entrance serves more than one transport network, an interchange totem sign should be adopted, see section 2. 8.

Customer journey To print this section print pages 49-62 Contents Back 50 2. 1 Examples London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The examples shown here and on the following page indicate the application of the basic elements at a variety of stations. External signs are those which identify Underground stations. For two main reasons, these signs function in difficult circumstances. Firstly, they are often in very competitive, busy environments where other signs and visual clutter are a severe disturbance to instant recognition.

Secondly, the architecture of stations varies so widely, that it is not possible to give hard and fast rules which will apply to all installations. 1 of 2 Customer journey Contents Back 51 2. 1 Examples London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 More than the other categories of signs, external signs affect, and are affected by, the architecture on or by which they are placed. The need for impact and recognition must always be balanced with the need for conservation and appropriateness. 2 of 2 Customerjourney Customer journey Contents Contents Back Back 52 . 2 Elements 1 2 London Underground signs manual | Issue 4 | Oct 2002 The main elements of the external signs are the roundel and the fascia. Generally, the roundel provides identification of a station and its entrance. The fascia acts as a secondary identification element and gives the name of the station. A roundel must always be present at station entrances, but there will be cases where it is not possible to include a fascia. There are two versions of the roundel which may be used, the panel and the silhouette.

The choice of roundel will depend on the architecture and location characteristics. Some existing silhouette roundels may also be restored if they are of heritage interest, or considered to be intrinsic to the building. The panel roundel will give greater contrast when viewed in conjunction with other street or retail signing. The silhouette version is the preferred option for architecturally-sensitive locations. At interchange stations where the entrance serves more than one transport network, an interchange totem sign should be adopted, see section 2. 8. 3 Customer journey Contents Back 53