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Literature Review

Extensive research has been carried out on the role and obstacles that women face as entrepreneurs (Han, 2004; Attain et al, 2011) and the imprison between males and females in terms of the opportunities they get (Gargle, 201 2), no single study exists which adequately covers the reasons behind either of success or failure for the entrepreneurs in the LEASE. Additionally, there is gap needs to be filled in the research of the role of entrepreneurs in sustainable energy development. In particular, the investigation process sought to answer the following three overreach inning research questions.

Why does an entrepreneur become an entrepreneur while other in the same condition does not? What is the effects of education and culture on an entrepreneur’s success or failure? What is the role of entrepreneurs in achieving sustainability?. The search process for this study is based on an automated search of the following digital libraries: Google Scholar http://scholar. Google. Awe/ Mansard Library http://library. Mansard. AC. Awe/ Usually I used Google scholar in my research because of several worthy reasons. First, it provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature.

Secondly, from one place, can search across many disciplines and sources such as articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions, from academic publishers, professional societies, online repositories, universities ND other web sites. Google Scholar helps me to find relevant work across the world of scholarly research. However, sometime resort to the MI library when the resource is not accessible in Google scholar because of payment issues. MI library offer many researches from different databases with no single supplement fees.

Inclusion Criteria chose the following inclusion criteria in order to select the relevant publications to answer my research questions: In my research I included publication from 1934 to 201 2, I intentionally added older research to notice the differences between the older findings and the ewer one. Avoided the research who focused in female entrepreneurs in their investigations because the result it might be not accurate in case of the male entrepreneurs. Tried to focus on the research that done particularly for AJAX entrepreneurs, but there is lack of research done accordingly.

So, I included an investigation from Bangladesh which reveal the Effect of Entrepreneur and Firm Characteristics on the Business Success of Small and Medium Enterprises. Including results from different regions will not affect the validity of the information because what the entrepreneurs face in Bangladesh there is high arability they might exposed to same situation in the AAU. Search String The aim for my search string is to capture all results that relate entrepreneurs. The search string used on the Google scholar database is: What is entrepreneurs?

Entrepreneurs in AJAX The importance of Enterprise education The motivation to become an entrepreneur Impact of Culture on Entrepreneur Intention. Entrepreneur and sustainability. The role of entrepreneurs in energy sustainability. When choosing sources to include in my paper, I look for sources that: Support my argument and. Provide background information on my topic. Provide contrary views. Have evidence in their results such as statistical data and case studies. Literature Review In order to best understand how entrepreneurs are contribute in the innovation it is first worth looking at entrepreneurs’ definition.

Arthur Coles (Cole, 1969, p. 17), Brouhahas and Horror’s (1985) were queried that entrepreneurs can be defined. They referred their conclusion to unexciting of generic definition of the entrepreneurs, or if there is, they argued that they do not have the psychological instruments to discover it at this time. Furthermore, they based their reasons to that most of the attempts to extinguish between entrepreneurs and small business owners have discovered no significant differentiating features (up. 4243).

Other scholars have concurred that a common definition of the entrepreneur remains elusive (Scarred, mm and Eddy, 1985; Sexton and Smiles, 1986). However, the doubts about whether the entrepreneurs could be defined have not stopped researchers from attempting to do so. In describing entrepreneurs, Joseph Schumacher noted that these were the individuals who attempted to “reform or revolutionize the pattern of production by exploiting an invention . . Or untried technical possibility for producing a new commodity or reducing an old one in a new way’ (Schumacher 1934, p. 32). While, according to Mueller and Thomas (2000), “entrepreneur is a self-motivated individual who takes the initiative to start and build an enterprise relying primarily on self rather than others to formulate and implement his or her goals”. Also, it has been and still is widely assumed that entrepreneur is a ‘person who has far above average in his/her willingness to take risks, his/her desire to excel, his/her personal optimism, his/her tolerance for ambiguity, and in his/her powerful preference for shaping their own destiny. (Beggary, 1989; Heathen, 1997). The following literatures were reviewed regarding the factors of becoming an entrepreneur, the impacts of education and culture on the entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs and sustainability issues. Factors that Effects the Possibilities of Becoming an Entrepreneur A bulk of studies in the entrepreneurship field has focused on the person of the entrepreneur, asking the question, why do certain individuals start firms when others, under similar conditions, do not? Baron, 1998). Schumacher found that the differences is result notes from entrepreneurial climate, the creation of new ventures and entrepreneurial activity. But it’s depends upon several factors such as, the availability of prospective entrepreneurs and individuals possessing personality traits combined with personal circumstances which are likely to lead them to forming a new venture (Schumacher 1 934, p. 132).

There are a wealth of researches has shown that new venture initiation or depth in entrepreneurial journey often occurs as a result of situational pushes or pulls that include frustration with present life- style, childhood, family environment, education, age, work history, role models, and support networks (Historic 1 990; Martin 1 984; Moore 1986; Krueger 1 993; Schoenberg and MacMillan 1988). Some individuals are pushed into entrepreneurship by negative factors such as dissatisfaction with existing employment, loss of employment, and career setbacks.

A number of empirical studies support this view and characterize entrepreneurs as misfits, rejects from society, or displaced individuals (Brouhahas 1 980; Shapers 1 975; Sets De Varies 1 977; Gilda and Levine 1986). Alternatively, individuals may be pulled into entrepreneurship by positive factors such as early training and exposure to business which encourages the search for business opportunities Krueger 1993; Maniacs 1 973; Gilda and Levine 1 986; Schoenberg and Macmillan 1988).

A sample of 30 case studies of AJAX entrepreneurs’ experience (Sitar & Veal, 201 1) the majority of the I-JAKE entrepreneurs, the key motivation to start their venture was the source of having an additional income and the possibility of gaining independence due to self-employment. The impacts of Education and Culture on Entrepreneurs Success or Failure AAU is a country that 30 years ago was an impoverished region of small desert principalities which has undergone a profound transformation to a errantly fairly modern state with a high standard of living (Han, 2004).

A recent study by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) on the entrepreneurial activities in the AJAX has placed the LEASE in an advanced position on the “Entrepreneurial Environment Scoreboard”, rating it as one of the most supportive environments for entrepreneurial activities. However, more than 50 per cent of the individuals included in the study confirmed that they would fear failure in starting up a new business due to lack of knowledge and skills to start a business (Chalked Times, 2007). Thus, next section is larcenist of the significant of the enterprise education.

Education There are many arguments that are doubtful of entrepreneurs learning by taking short program or earning a degree. It believed that the entrepreneurs is about luck, successful entrepreneurs are born, not made and the entrepreneurship about being in the right place at the right time with a product or service that customer just happen to love (Roans, 2004 & Mullions, 2006). Although all of these doubts, there are many literature concluded that formal and informal education increase individuals Knowledge and facilitate their entrepreneurial path (Gibbs Dyer, 1994; Robinson et al. , 1991; Krueger & Braze, 1994).

Empirical research has demonstrated a range of results regarding the relationship between education, entrepreneurship and success, with education frequently producing non-linear effects in supporting the probability of becoming an entrepreneur, in achieving success, in encouraging entrepreneurs to start a business, or improving the performance of a business. (Belle, Davidson and Goldberg, 1 990; Davidson, 1 995; Evans and Leighton, 1989; Simenon, et al. , 1997; Honing, 1996; Reynolds, 1997). Let’s consider one example Of teaching method that might entrepreneurs receive n formal education and see how it will affect their attitude.

For instance, a case study of a difficult decision that a real-life entrepreneur actually faced. The students job to wrestle with the decision, just as the entrepreneur under study had to do. And they might need to ask themselves these questions, should I buy or sell? Develop a new product or enter a new market? Float now or wait?. By learning the tools and applying them to real entrepreneurial decisions, the entrepreneur to be develops ways of dealing with the likely challenges he or she will face, sooner or later.

By having the right instructions ND education, many errors can be avoided and provide an accelerated track to an entrepreneurial life (Mullions, 2006). The following is illustration of the impact of culture on entrepreneur intention. Culture Barbour (1979) defines culture as ‘the configuration of stereotyped patterns of learned behavior which are handed down from one generation to the next through the means of language and imitation” (p. 5). Kookier and Parson’s (1958, p. 583) earlier cross-disciplinary definition of culture included “patterns Of values, ideas, and other symbolic-meaningful systems as factors in the shaping of human behavior’.

Every societies have values and norms which are powerful forces for controlling and directing their individuals’ behavior. Erect and Early (1993) noted that culture play major role in shaping the cognitive schema which ascribe meaning and values to motivational variables and guide choices, commitments, and standards of behavior. Thus culture, is engaging individuals to behavior that may not be as prevalent in other societies, because culture considers as the underlying system of values peculiar to a specific group or society, shapes the development of certain personality traits.

For instance an entrepreneurial activity like new venture reaction may be one of these behaviors which varies across countries due to differences in cultural values and beliefs. Beside that many factors underlying entrepreneurial behavior are common across cultures such as economic incentives can motivate action in all cultures. However, since culture reinforces certain personal characteristics and penalizes others, we would expect some cultures to be more closely aligned with an entrepreneurial orientation than others.

Hussein (1985) for example noted wide variance in entrepreneurial activity across cultures and concluded that cultural values influence entrepreneurial behavior. Bossism (2005) and Currier (2008) emphasize that all socio-geographic variables like ethnicity, absorptive capacity, culture, relationships, family and social capital make the difference, but in particular entrepreneurship, both as ownership or as management, play a strategic role. Entrepreneur and sustainability issues Do individuals who are concerned by issues of sustainability also exhibit stronger entrepreneurial intentions?.

Previous research has indicated that entrepreneurship for sustainable development holds a bold promise, namely, that because entrepreneurial opportunities exist which are caused by market imperfections, individuals will pursue these in the expectation of entrepreneurial rents (Cricketer & Wagner, 2010). Previous studies have reported that working in innovate in energy efficiency project would be profitable but it is still yet not profitable enough to be preferred in the light of other investment opportunities with higher returns (Gaffe and Staving, 1 994; Canasta and Worth, 1994).

However, whilst these energy saving opportunities are an example which is not likely to be considered by an individual focusing on maximizing economic rents, such opportunities with great sustainability benefits could be of interest for a attention entrepreneur oriented towards sustainability (Cricketer & Wagner, 2010). Entrepreneur and their participation in achieving energy sustainability in LEASE Previous reports have highlighted that the Arabian Gulf countries in general – and the AAU in particular – have the highest levels of per capita CA emissions and Water use in the world (UNDO, 2009 and 2008).

The combination of high energy demand, a desire to reduce CA emissions, high solar insulation, and large uninhabited desert areas, make solar energy a potential niche for the diversification of energy generation. ABA Dhabi, the UAPITA of the United Arab Emirates (AAU), has developed a technology innovation hub in the area of sustainable energy, with a particular focus on solar technologies. This goal is part of ABA Dhabi aspiration in order to diversify it is economy and move toward a more knowledge-based economy.

This economic transformation and diversification calls for a focus on creating an environment conducive to innovation and entrepreneurship in the field of sustainable energy. For instance, the objective of young future energy leaders program in LEASE is to target future leaders in the fields of alternative energy and engage them with the leaders of today. WIFELY also offers young professionals and students from the AJAX and abroad the opportunity to become more engaged in finding solutions to the world’s biggest challenges: energy efficiency and climate change.

To clarify the benefits role of this program and as Coordinators who published paper on Risks and decision making in development of new power plant projects states “l would like to thank the Young Future Energy Leaders (WIFELY) program for introducing me to industry experts who provided valuable input to my research work” (Coordinators, 2012). Another example worth mentioning is Mansard City, “the Mansard Institute of Science and Technology and all the related projects in this bold experiment will provide lessons and much food for thought for all who are working on sustainable development and energy solutions” (Ban Ski-moon, 201 1).