Mental Illness HCA 240 Week 8 7-24-2011 CHRISTIE MC CULLUM-HILL There are many different mental illnesses that many people suffer from. I am going to discuss Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). I am going to talk about the history of PTSD, past and present treatment of PTSD, the signs and symptoms of PTSD, the neurotransmitters that are associated with PTSD, how PTSD is diagnosed, and how the patients environment promote or detract from successful treatment. Let’s go into the world of PTSD.
The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment research, including the development of new treatments, their evaluation in outcome trials, and greater diversity of client samples. At this point, there are two major models of evidence based psychotherapy treatments for PTSD: Present focused and past focused. In past-focused models, the client tells the trauma story in full detail as a way to face the feelings that arise from it. In present focused models, the client learns coping skills to improve functioning (e. . , social skills, relaxation, grounding, and cognitive restructuring). Examples of past-focused models include eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and exposure therapy. Examples of present-focused models include stress inoculation training and anxiety management. Research indicates, overall, that both present- and past-focused models are effective, neither outperforms the other, both outperform treatment-as-usual, and the combination of both models does not outperform either one alone ( Najavits, 2006).
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops after a traumatic event. PTSD has also been called shell shock or battle fatigue. The exact cause of PTSD is unknown. PTSD is triggered by exposure to a traumatic event. Situations in which a person feels intense fear, helplessness, or horror are considered traumatic. PTSD has been reported in people who experienced: War, Rape, Physical assault, Earthquakes, Fire, Sexual abuse, Motor vehicle accidents, Attacks from an animal. Researchers are studying how problems with synapses in the brain may e linked to PTSD. Not everyone who experiences a traumatic event will develop PTSD. Symptoms of PTSD are more likely to occur if the person has: Previous traumatic experiences, A history of being physically abused, Poor coping skills, Lack of social support, Existing ongoing stress, A social environment that produces shame, guilt, stigmatization, or self-hatred, Alcohol abuse, Family psychiatric history. People with PTSD experience symptoms of anxiety. These symptoms fall into three categories: * Re-experiencing of the event Dreams or nightmares * Flashbacks * Anxious reactions to reminders of the event * Hallucinations * Avoidance * Avoiding close emotional contact with family and friends * Avoiding people or places that are reminders of the event * Loss of memory about the event * Feelings of detachment, numbness * Arousal * Difficulty falling or staying asleep * Anger and irritability * Difficulty concentrating * Being easily startled Physical symptoms may also occur, such as: * Stomach and digestive problems * Chest pain * Headaches * Dizziness
People with PTSD may also abuse alcohol or drugs . The doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history. This could be done by a structured interview and/or a questionnaire. You will also likely be given a psychological assessment. PTSD will be diagnosed if you have the specified symptoms, they last for more than one month, and they result in both emotional distress and disturbed functioning (problems at school, work, and/or in family and peer relationships). PTSD is categorized according to when symptoms occur and how long they last.
There are three types of PTSD: * Acute—symptoms last between 1-3 months after the event * Chronic—symptoms last more than three months after the event * Delayed onset—symptoms do not appear until at least six months after the event * There is no definitive treatment nor is there a cure for PTSD. A variety of therapies can help relieve symptoms. You will not begin treatment for PTSD until after you are completely removed from the traumatic event. You will first receive treatment for severe depression , suicidal tendencies, and drug or alcohol abuse. * Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive-behavior therapy involves changing your thinking patterns to improve symptoms. Your therapist may teach you techniques to manage anxiety, stress, and anger. Exposure Therapy In exposure therapy, the therapist brings back the imagery of the event in a safe place. You are gradually guided through visualization. Re-experiencing the trauma in a controlled environment can help you let go of fear and gain control over the anxiety. For example, a study involving female military personnel found that exposure therapy was effective in relieving PTSD symptoms.
Group Therapy Meeting in a group with other survivors of trauma can be an effective and powerful form of therapy for PTSD sufferers. Medication Medicine may help with anxiety, depression, and insomnia . Usually, antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are prescribed. Anti-anxiety medicines may be used in the short term and/or beta-blockers in the long term to calm some of the physical symptoms of severe PTSD. Prevention The events that trigger PTSD cannot be predicted or prevented.
However, there are some factors that might prevent PTSD from developing after the event. * Cognitive behavioral therapy after an acute stressful episodes may help prevent PTSD * Social support —A network of social support can make a difference in how people react to trauma. (Riley, 2010). The neurotransmitters that associated with PTSD are Norephinephrine and Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). The Norephinephrine effects Mood, anxiety, vigilance, arousal, heart rate, blood pressure and the GABA interacts with a wide range of neurotransmitters to inhibition.
Norephinephrine neurotransmitter causes Depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD, bipolar disorder and GABA neurotransmitter causes Anxiety disorders, alcoholism, enhance Tourettes syndrome, sleep disorders. PTSD is an Anxiety Disorder. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for substance use disorders. Studies have found rates of PTSD and SUD co morbidity as high as 25-59%. Having PTSD and increased psychiatric distress associated with co morbid disorders were associated with poorer substance use outcomes.
Dually diagnosed patients were not only less likely to be in remission when compared to an SUD-only group, but that they did have more severe levels of distress. However, other studies suggest that there are no significant differences for treatment outcomes between those with co morbid PTSD and SUD, and SUD-only. Several theorists believe that using substances for extended periods of time may be a causal factor in mental health symptomatology, or that it exacerbates existing psychiatric symptoms. Alternatively, self medication theorists assert that individuals use substances as a coping mechanism for negative emotions.
Patients with PTSD reported that their substance abuse relapse was in response to depression more often than people without PTSD. Alcohol may have dampening effects that help regulate the anxiety of patients with PTSD and that cocaine may increase hyper vigilance and self-confidence to help individuals with PTSD feel more in control in social situations. There is some evidence for both theoretical points of view. For example, individuals with co-occurring disorders reported that they experienced depressive and anxiety symptoms before relapse, which supports the self medication theory.
However, these individuals reported that those symptoms did not diminish, and in fact, were exacerbated after drug use. Symptoms of PTSD include intense feelings of fear and anxiety, which may lead individuals with this disorder towards avoidance of people, places, or situations that could cause them to re-experience the trauma. Individuals with PTSD also experience self-regulation impairments – a reduction in their ability to logically regulate responses to goals, priorities and environmental demands.
Impairment of self-regulation causes individuals to experience increased emotional distress, periods of dissociation, loss of trust in relationships and meaning in life, and chronic health problems that cannot be medically explained. Cognitive structures responsible for managing emotional responses become impaired for individuals who have been exposed to both extreme stress and who are chronically dependent on substances. Inhibition of cognitive control processes may affect decision making and impulse control that impacts substance abuse or relapse.
Conversely, people with high self-control show less impulse-related problems, such as alcohol problems. High self-regulation is also associated with better psychological adjustment. Another factor that may increase positive outcomes for those with PTSD and SUDs is employment. People with psychological disorders find work as a meaningful and satisfying way to expand the broader social and economic networks in their lives. For instance, in one study, veterans who were able to form social bonds were also more likely to be in remission of PTSD.
In contrast, veterans’ feelings of isolation and weakening social bonds were more likely to predict chronic PTSD. People with psychological disorders who are able to work derive internalized values and satisfaction from their work-related experiences. They value their independence and perceive themselves as able to influence their environment, a factor that is positively associated with mental health. Although being employed has economic and mental health advantages, having PTSD makes it more difficult to find employment.
PTSD status greatly decreased the probability of current employment, and that PTSD status had a greater effect on unemployment than years of education. A positive correlation between PTSD symptom levels and the probability of unemployment, employment is beneficial for substance users. Chronically dependent individuals have been found to increase their likelihood of abstinence when employment was a component in their substance use intervention. Employment might act as a strong influence in increasing mental health and maintaining abstinence (Jason, 2011).
One thing that I noticed while doing the research for this paper is that most of the people that suffer from PTSD are in the military or were in the military that served in the war. But there are many of other people who suffer from this disorder that were not in war or in the military. For example I have this disorder that was triggered from a head on collision. I have done both treatments and they both work in their own way it just depends on the patient and how they react to the different methods. I hope you learned something new because I sure have.
Mental Illness does have a lot to do with the way you do your daily living activities such as cooking, cleaning, hygiene, working, responsibilities, and etc. References Jason, L. A. (2011). How Type of Treatment and Presence of PTSD affect Employment, Self-regulation, and Abstinence. EBSCO. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com/eds/detail? sid=bc05cc65-a1d7-442a-a768-176d809eb35d%40sessionmgr114&vid=29&hid=116&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=a9h&AN=60578460 Najavits, L. M. (2006).
Present- Versus Past-Focused Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder/Substance Abuse: A Study of Clinician Preferences. EBSCO. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost. com/eds/detail? sid=bc05cc65-a1d7-442a-a768-176d809eb35d%40sessionmgr114&vid=24&hid=116&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=i3h&AN=22104669 Riley, J. (2010). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. EBSCO Publishing. Retrieved from https://ehis. ebscohost. com/eds/detail? vid=7&hid=116&sid=bc05cc65-a1d7-442a-a768-176d809eb35d%40sessionmgr114&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d#db=nrc&AN=2009544268