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Global History Research Paper

Fuelled by great advances in European weaponry and industrial productivity, colonial expansion was seen as being crucial in this anointed industrial advancement of Europe as well as a moral obligation of “the duty to civilize the inferior races” .

The Eastern nations affected by this colonial occupation and spread of imperialism had mixed approaches to the Western culture they were faced with; in particular the approach to the learning of Western ways of science and mathematics in Asian and Eastern countries was controversial and an understanding of these attitudes is reflective of the overall response to the growth of Western dominance in the Eastern world.

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Jules Ferry, French Prime Minister, gives an account in his 1884 speech of the alee of colonialism and the justification of the ideology of imperialism based on political and economic necessity. He argues that colonial expansion is necessary, for the “crying need, or our industrial population” as there is a need for outlets for exports and that competition in this field is no long just limited to the European states.

He describes the situation as “today as you know, competition, the law of supply and demand, freedom of trade… All radiate in a circle that reaches to the ends of the earth” and therefore there is a great economic difficulty in supplied and maintain these connections thou a solid colonial and imperialistic stance. Ferry also highlights the value of imperialism in that it is civilizing inferior races and advocates for open visitation of the higher races right over the lower races in their “superior civilizing duty’.

The Fresh’s intentions, being similar to those of other European countries pursuing imperialistic policies, appear to largely be in self-interest of the Western world. The attitudes Ferry expresses in regards to the inferiority of other nations has great effect on the consequential attitudes of Eastern nations in particular respect to the growing disparity between the East and the West and the conflict over Eastern countries adopting Western ways of learning in respect to technologies and science.

Throughout the nineteenth century, the Chinese in particular were envious of new Western technologies which had emerged through the industrialization period and spread with imperialism. Of particular note were the learning of geography, mathematics and the natural sciences which the Chinese saw as superior knowledge to that currently being taught in Asia. Fen Gaffe in the mime of the Tapping Rebellion, encourages China to take up Western teaching in these fields and encourages the idea of brilliant students being provided incentives to encourage their learning in these areas .

Although Guff’s tone indicates that he believes the Chinese people and culture to be superior to the Westerns, referring to them as “barbarians”, he is confident that if Western teaching is combined with Chinese ethics and Confucian teachings, then it will not be long before the Chinese will surpass the Westerns in the “attainment of prosperity and pooped’. Gaffe is highly aware of the effects of European imperialism and the advantages that China can take from a spread in Western ideas to ultimately improve Eastern way of life.

Stayed Kamala ad-Din “al-Afghans”, although agreeing with Given on the benefits of introducing Western teaching into Eastern societies, disagrees with his proposal that local culture and religious teachings should have any part to play in learning, describing this influence as having a negative impact on the studies. Afghans believes strongly in the Western sciences and teaching stating that “all wealth and riches are the result of science”.

As commerce, agriculture and industry all rely upon one another and have science at their foundation, and as describes by Ferry, these are all areas of civilization which have been spread and grow through European imperialism. In agreement with Given, Afghans believe in the importance of learning these Western ways as a means of advancing their own country however is critical of religion in playing a part in distinguishing between what should be taught.

Although Given and Afghans understand the impact imperialism fosterer nations is having on their countries, they believe learning from these ways is a way awards eventually being superior to the Western world. The views of Given and Afghans are contrasted with the tolerance of Western culture in India, specifically addressed by Gandhi who is critical of all Western learning which he believes has led to people living in civilization which “promotes bodily happiness” over all else, making “bodily welfare the object of life?’ .

Gandhi is critical of the affect that the spread of Western culture through imperialism and colonization is having on some Eastern nations including the continual exploitation of the India people by the British, exulting in the new civilization which ignores religion and morality, essentially destroying Indian culture and disemboweling its people in their own country. Gandhi highlights an increase in the impersonal, as technology plays an increasing role in production by machinery, people move from slavery by physical compulsion to enslavement by the temptation of money.

This view in India is further explored in the Gamma Proclamation issued in the 1857 uprising in India of Indian civilians against the British occupation. The proclamation is freely expressive of criticism of the British describing the people of India as being “ruined under the tyranny and oppression of the infidel and treacherous English”. The proclamation calls for the uprising of the Hindmost and Mohammedan, whether they be Seminars, merchants, public servants, artisans or Pundits in whatever means they are capable.

If they cannot be openly supportive of the Baddish Government, the proclamation calls at least for them to “heartily Wish ill” for the British. The language used in the proclamation is clearly indicative of the views held by the native Indian people of the British and Western values which are exploiting their people in ways such as imposing unnecessary costs on civil litigants, abusing trade profits, low pay for civil servants, employment of British over Indian people for artisans, as well as being offensive to local religions.

It is obvious from the views of both Gandhi and those set out in the proclamation that the people of India were not at all receptive to learning Western ways of life and believed that these were not necessary in the continued progression of the life and culture. Western expansion through colonialism and the ideology of imperialism may eave been beneficial in the continued success of growing industrial pursuits for the Western world however it was the Western attitudes of superiority over other nations which lead to a disparity in whether the learning of the Western world should be bought into the East.


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