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Germany In World War 1

Although in the Treaty of Versailles Germany was to accept full responsibility
for World War 1 this in not necessarily the case. Many factors have to be taken
into account when considering the cause of World War 1. Germany may have been
primarily responsible for the war but the other major powers must accept some of
the blame for failing to prevent it. The conflict resulting from the
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinard should have been local and confined
but due to a series of factors, militarism, the alliance system, nationalism,
this one incident led to the greatest war Europe had ever seen. As a result of
underlying hostilities the assassination led to a chain of events that ensured
war on a wide scale. The alliance system developed by Bismarck for defensive
purposes was one of the major causes of the war. These alliances however took a
more aggressive tone in the hands of Bismarck’s successors. Also Bismarck’s
alliance system was too intricate for anybody other than himself to maintain.

While he was alive the alliances preserved peace but in the hands of William the
2nd these alliance were destroyed. Bismarck’s policy was to keep France
isolated however with William refusing to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with
Russia. France now had an ally thus resulting in the signing of the
Franco-Russian Entente in 1891. In 1904 Britain and France formed a non-military
alliance called the Entente Cordial. As a result at the outbreak of war Europe
was divided into two armed camps, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.

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The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungry and Italy and the
Triple Entente was made up of Britain, France, and Russia. These alliances
facilitated a political assassination sparking a World War. Along with the
hostile divisions in Europe came the expansion of armies and navies thus leading
to an arms race. This arms race was also precipitated by the increase in war
budgets after 1900. Attempts to restrict the arms race, like The Hague
conference in 1899 and 1907 failed due to mutual suspicion. The great powers
also elaborated plans for mass mobilisation. It was thought that a war would be
decided in the opening phases and therefore who ever got into the field first
and assembled the largest army in the shortest time would have the advantage
over it’s rival. When World War 1 began Germany ultimately mobilised eleven
million troops, France mobilised twenty percent of her population or 7,800,000
and Russia mobilised sixteen million men (White Heat 7). By 1914 the general
staffs in Germany, France, Russia and Austria favoured war. Germany and Britain
were involved in a naval race, which caused antagonism between the two powers
due to Britain’s pride in her naval fleet and the necessity of it to maintain
her Empire. She saw Germany’s continued expansion as a threat. Sir John Fisher
of the British navy suggested that the navy should “Copenhagen the German
Fleet” before it was too late (Europe Since 1870 105). Admiral Tirpitz of
Germany opposed any plans for naval disarmament. Von Hotzendorf, the Austrian
Chief of Staff, had been pushing for a preventative war against Serbia since
1906. Before World War 1 Europe was in the mind set for war, as I have described
above, countries were expanding their armies and making plans for war. One of
the most famous plans of war was the Schlieffen plan. This plan devised by
General Von Schlieffen was based on mass mobilisation. It was believed that in
the event of a war it would take Germany thirty-six hours to mobilise, France
forty-eight hours and Russia three weeks (Europe Since 1870 105). The Germans
would thus attack France first and then after defeating France go on to attack
Russia. From these plans we can see that the Chiefs of Staff in Europe were
expecting and planning for a war. The military leaders in Europe played a large
role in influencing their governments to go to war. Jingoism also played a major
role in the outbreak of war. Jingoism is extreme or excessive patriotism. The
public was prepared for a war they wanted to show how powerful and glorious
their country was. By 1914 there was nearly one hundred and eighty books written
on the subject of major war in various different languages: Der Weltkreig
(1904), depicted a German conflict with Britain. Le Queux’s The Invasion
(1910) sold over a million copies (Reasons for War 2). These books prepared the
public for the fears and the excitement of war. There was a sense of pure
nationalism running through society, that never again would Europe display this
kind of patriotic fervour, the conflict to come would destroy it (The Origins of
War 5). Nationalism was also a cause of World War1. Austria’s unfair treatment
of the minorities in her Empire caused the spread of Balkan nationalism. Serbia
had been forced to hand over Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria to obtain her
independence and due to Serbia flourishing as a nation the people of Bosnia and
Herzegovina became restless under Austrian rule. Serbia encouraged anti-Austrian
feeling which antagonised Austria and led her to annex Bosnia in 1908 breaking
an agreement with Russia leading to the Bosnian Crisis. Russia’s policy of
Pan-slavism also caused friction with Austria. Pan-slavism was the idea that all
Slav peoples should be “freed” from Ottoman and Hapsberg control. These
antagonisms led to an alliance between Russia and Serbia. There were also wars
in the Balkans during the period 1912-13. Austria saw the assassination of the
Archduke as the pretext to go to war with Serbia (1914 8). Alliances were formed
during this period that would be still evident during World War 1. It is also
thought that the system of government at the time also contributed to war.

Capitalists saw the war as an opportunity to make enormous profits, thus leading
them to put pressure on governments to go to war. At this time the arms industry
was flourishing, there were Krupps in Germany, Armstrong and Withworth in
Britain, Nobel in Sweden and Seinder in France. The war was also seen as a way
to distract people from industrial strife that was evident at the time such as
working conditions. “The intensive industrialisation which occurred in Britain
and Germany in the thirty years before 1914 put the tools of war into the hands
of men who were prepared to use them” (Europe Since 1870 105). It the days
after the Archdukes assassination Austria must take some of the blame for the
onset of war. Austria would not act unless she was sure of the support of
Germany. The reason for Germanys part in the outbreak of war was due to a
telegram sent to Franz Joseph guaranteeing Austria Germany’s support in the
event of a war. This has become known as the “Blank Cheque”. Austria sent an
ultimatum to Serbia, which contained unrealistic terms. However Serbia managed
to meet all terms except one which would have allowed Austrian army to occupy
Serbian territory. At this stage Austria could have prevented war but she chose
not to. July 28th, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia and as a result of the
alliance system Europe goes to war. With Britain being the last to enter on the
war on August 5th, 1914. By 1914 the system of diplomacy in Europe had broken
down. Statesmen were thinking of war as a preventative measure rather than a
last resort. Lloyd George remarked that Europe “stumbled and staggered into
war” (Reasons for War 3). World War 1 was a result of aggression and tension
in Europe; all of Europe played a part in the outbreak of war not just Germany.

World War 1 had many complex causes rather than one main one.

Delap, S. The Reasons for War. Dublin: The Institute, 1996. Gardner, D. The
Origins of War. New York: YTM Archive, 1998. MacDonald, L. 1914. London: Michael
Joseph, 1987. Tierney, M. Europe Since 1870. Dublin: CJ Fallon, 1993. Terraine,
J. The First World War 1914-18. London: Secker & Warburg, 1965. Terraine, J.

White Heat. London: Lee Cooper, 1992. Wohl, R. The Generation of 1914. London:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980.


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