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critical thinking

1. “Active, persistent and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of
knowledge in light of the grounds that support it, and the further conclusions
to which it tends.” (John Dewey, 1909)

2. “Reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.
In addition to 12 CT abilities, CT also includes 14 dispositions. Namely: to seek a clear
statement of the thesis or question; to seek reasons; to try to be well informed; to use
credible sources and mention them; to take into account the total situation; to try to remain
relevant to the main point; to keep in mind the original or basic concern; to look for
alternatives; to be open-minded; to take a position when the evidence and reasons are
sufficient to do so; to seek as much precision as the subject permits; to deal in an orderly
manner with the parts of a complex whole; to use one’s CT abilities; to be sensitive to
feelings, level of knowledge, and degree of sophistication of others.” (Robert H. Ennis,

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3. “It comes in two forms. If thinking is disciplined to serve the interest of
a particular individual or group, to the exclusion of other relevant persons
and groups, . . . it is sophistic or weak-sense critical thinking.
If the thinking is disciplined to take into account the interests of diverse persons
or groups, it is fair-minded or strong-sense critical thinking.” (Richard W.
Paul, 1988.)
4. Critical thinking is a process that begins with an argument and progresses
toward evaluation. The process is activated by three interrelated activities:
a. Asking key questions designed to identify and assess what is being said,
b. Answering those questions by focusing on their impact on stated inferences, and
c. Displaying the desire to deploy critical questions. (Browne and Keeley, 2000). 2

What Is Critical Thinking?
Critical thinking is…


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