Log on to: http://learn. genetics. utah. edu/content/tech/cloning/ and explore this module to find the answers to the questions below. 1. Compare and contrast the following methods of Cloning: Embryo Twinning and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Between the similarities of Embryo Twinning Vs. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer we can find that an exact genetical copy of the organism is made and that a substitute mother will be used. In the other hand, we 2. How does Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) differ from the natural way of making an embryo?
A complete set of chromosomes comes from one source (the somatic cell nucleus) as op- posed to two different sources (egg and sperm). 3. Briefly explain the medical reasons for cloning. The medical reasons existed to promote cloning are to simply provide cure or noticeable improvements in serious illnesses a person may have that without cloning would not have a chance of cure. Between theses sickness we can find diabetes, cancer, arthritis, organ problems and even spinal problems.
The intention new and healthy cells and organisms than can replace and/or repair the areas affected in the body because of the disease. 4. List reasons, other than medical, for cloning. Some of the reasons other than medical for cloning are the following: 1. Reproduce a human being with the closest or exact characteristic of another human. This could be tight to emotions in the sense of trying to find ways to substitute and be in touch again with a person we loved and is not here anymore. 2. Reproduce animals in order to sustain shortages of food in the world 3.
To create ways to avoid extinction of wild life in the world and to be able to maintain or recreate them in the future 5. What was the first organism to be cloned? How was it done? In what year did this take place? The first organism to be cloned was a sea urchin, in 1885. The procedure was to shake a two-celled embryo until the cells separated. 6. What was the first organism to be cloned using nuclear transfer? A frog 7. How were the first cows cloned? An electric shock was used to fuse embryonic cells to enucleated egg cells 8.
What organism helped prove that cloning could be done using cells from males (up to this point all cloning experiments had been carried out using cells from females)? What was the organism’s name? A mouse named Fibro. 9. In what year was the first human clone created and what stage of development did it reach before it stopped growing? In 2001 Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) produced the first cloned human embryo. The embryo reached the six cell stage and then stopped dividing. 10. Give at least two reasons why a clone might not necessarily be a carbon copy of the donor organism.
Answers might include: different environmental factors, the organisms would be raised differently, personalities and behaviors would be different, differences in gene activation, X inactivation 11. Name the two animals (they are the same species) that serve as an example. The cats Rainbow and CC. 12. List and briefly explain the risks of cloning. High failure rate – compatibility problems between the egg and nucleus, developmental problems, or problems with the pregnancy itself affect the success rate of cloning.
Problems during later development – larger organs than normal can lead to problems Abnormal gene expression patterns – transferred nuclei must be reprogrammed to behave as if they were early embryonic cells following the normal pattern of gene activation. Telomeric differences – the normal process of aging shortens the telomere lengths of chromosomes. This may have an affect on cloning if older organisms are used as somatic cell donors. 13. Choose two of the questions raised at the end of “What Are Some Issues In Cloning? ” Write the questions and your responses to them below.