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Cheyenne Tuggle (5639 words)

Cheyenne Tuggle
Exploring Humanistic and Cognitive Psychology
The University of Valley Forge
PSY 463
The focal point of this part of the paper is the individual-focused technique, that is the understanding of persona and human relationships in psychotherapy and counseling inside the regions of consumer-focused remedy, schooling of student-targeted getting to know, companies, and different group settings. despite the fact that psychoanalysis and behaviorism have made essential contributions to psychology, it has stimulated the know-how and practices of the humanistic movement, mainly with the cures for the unique mental problems. Psychoanalysis is familiar with the subconscious behavior; behaviorism makes a specialty of the conditioning system that produces conduct. Humanistic Psychology makes a specialty of the man or woman’s capability to act as an entire person in a nurturing surroundings by using desire with receiving a superb manner of life.

The Cognitive revolution in psychology changed into a duration throughout the 1950’s and 1960’s which worried radical adjustments to two principal concepts in psychology which can be cognizance and causality. It became also a period that saw to the abolishment of conventional technology values of dichotomy and the worship of atomization in technology, replacing reductive micro deterministic views of personhood with holistic pinnacle-down view (Overskeid, 2008). The intention of this part of the paper is to offer an account of what constitutes the cognitive revolution, and additionally assess the contributions that the cognitive revolution has made to the medical study of psychology.

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Humanistic Psychology
The humanistic psychology technique allows the situations to use to the patron scenario for wonderful tendencies and goals however, no longer meant for the therapist. It is important that the therapist behavior sessions in a way where they may be displaying themselves inside the session with out pretense. This lets in a boom-promoting weather with the psychoanalysis of the consumer’s behavior. A vital motive for a a hit individual-focused therapy lets in customers the liberty to broaden and manipulate their very own lives, rather than being tied to their beyond (Goodwin, 2008). This method additionally denotes and consists of psychotherapy and humanistic remedy in which the concentration is on the prevailing and now not the beyond, and the humanistic analyst has a tendency to underlines consciousness rather than being unaware. Both theories percentage a common technique whilst patients and customers communicate their emotions vocally and the therapist offer analyses. however, the humanistic psychology approach allows the conditions to apply to the client’s scenario for wonderful tendencies and dreams that aren’t supposed for the therapist. It’s miles critical that the therapist behavior periods in a manner in which they’re displaying themselves inside the session with out pretense. This allows an increase-selling climate with the psychoanalysis of the customer’s behavior. An essential aspect for a success man or woman-centered therapy lets in customers the liberty to develop and manage their own lives, as opposed to being tied to their beyond (Goodwin, 2008). This technique additionally denotes and consists of psychotherapy concept and humanistic remedy wherein the awareness is on the prevailing in place of the past, and the humanistic analyst tends to underlines attention in preference to being unaware. Both theories percentage a common method while patients and clients converse their feelings vocally and the therapist provide analyses.

In a humanistic therapy method or a person-centered psychoanalysis, the therapist’s middle of attention is on the conscious of the purchaser to expose their consciousness. On this surroundings, such as the therapist displays realism, popularity and kindness, as an attempt in helping the client to openly deliver their feelings. Those sorts of sessions permit for statistics to float between the customer and the therapist in a humanistic genuineness, realness, expert and no facade way. The idea is for the consumer to freely specific their notion and feelings to the psychotherapists so that during go back kindness and reputation is displayed. In doing so the therapist obligation to their customers is to be as transparent as possible with utilizing their professional talents and talents for a fine customer courting toward attaining dialog, patron self-cognizance and a correct evaluation.

Behavior and cognitive evaluation are parallel within the way of issues, wherein negative mind can alternate the manner human beings carry out. Research studies in psychology display that personalities and behaviors do arise with bothered individuals and with schizophrenics (Rodgers, 1980). In behavior therapies, systematic deadening, a sort of offset conditioning that combines an amusing non violent country with step by step growing tension-prompting stimuli. Freud’s theories of psychoanalysis supply insights about how psychologists view the human mind and lifespan conduct of improvement.

Behaviorism is the idea that is based on studying that is received thru the manner of conditioning along side the interplay of your surroundings. The two forms of conditioning techniques are known as Classical and Operant. Classical is a type of respondent conduct that is related to getting to know occurring whilst a stimulus is evoked by using a reaction after some other stimulus. Operant conditioning is based totally on fine purpose success; it reflects on behavior which could alternate the environment in some shape.

Humanistic psychologists think about the holistic view of the character with the capacity of self boom and self actualization (Rogers, 1980). Psychotherapist Carl Rodger’s studies can offer evaluation information of ways biopsychology applies to man or woman and social motives on the logistics of why humans act or respond to unique conditions. Rodger’s philosophy focuses on the man or woman development of human character for humans to act as a completely functioning person. The humanistic intention is to produce a functioning man or woman which will research in an unfastened affiliation of strategies, also known as a non-directive sort of remedy.

Roger’s method to person-centered counseling identifies self actualization of every fee to interact customers with growing greater nice self-pastimes. In modern-day idea practices a trained intellectual fitness professional is the proper professional recommended with those varieties of healing procedures for intellectual issues. Clients with afflicted behaviors want to prevent a troubling stimulus from coming into the consciousness. The practice of the expert therapists is to discover stories unconsciously acknowledged to the person by using making use of healing strategies.

Character behavior is created with the aid of outside outcomes expressed as causality. A non-public behavior when creative is directed closer to a reason. essentially, someone’s conduct is for all time an incentive, a need or a desire. An example might be if a purpose influences a behavior and forces a man or woman to obtain this motive. Next to engaging in this purpose, there’s a want to embody in addition reason because the previous one will not stay doubtful. The person receiving remedy in maximum cases is defensive, isn’t always open to ordinary existence stories, and typically cannot function in a great international.

Clients with those styles of personalities go through and are pressured. The humanistic method recognizes the interactions of the frame, mind, and spirit of the person. It may impact the man or woman’s cognizance of being free, responsible, and empathic, presents self-actualization and is a natural conduct method in growing a fantastic private growth. A scenario of a humanistic healing process would be of a wanted client desires for sanatorium care offerings. An example could be a provider out of doors of the sanatorium facility from a trained and license medical medical doctor for humanistic counseling offerings. The man or woman targeted therapy method would gain the patient with supportive healing counseling and hospital treatment offerings far from the health facility for home care commentary bodily and mentally. This could allow remedy to be done in an environment where clients can speak and get hold of the needed care in a relaxed and familiar environment. Many character-focused therapy strategies require the therapist to be a lively listener. This exercise technique we could the purchaser understand that they are being heard and understood (Kirschenbaum, Jourdan, 2005)
In comparing humanistic, psychoanalytic and behaviorism techniques the therapist’s intention includes particular activities for patients with preferred results however places barriers on institution content (Rogers, 1980). Some of the challenges and criticisms of character-centered therapy, first, many believe that it is too conceptual while clients are not acquainted with or have the ability to prepare their mind. Secondly, many psychologists undertaking the concept that individual-centered therapy does no longer circulate the affected person quickly sufficient right into a deliberate behavioral alternate. Third, individual-focused therapists feel that the shortage of records may be misplaced to therapists who do not use diagnostic strategies. Fourth, the future of humanistic therapy is believed to have an extra involved technique for supporting patients with the idea of the use of a greater subjective method. Finally, the apprehension is that people have one-of-a-kind cognitive conduct patterns that no one can assume that individual-focused therapeutic remedy is enough. Character-focused therapy is considered to be skeptical and no longer open to standard new studies (Krasner, 1978).

Certainly, while psychoanalysis and behaviorism has made fundamental contributions to psychology, it inspired the know-how and practices of the humanistic motion, mainly the character-targeted technique. Psychoanalysis focuses on understanding the subconscious behavior while behaviorism makes a specialty of the conditioning system that produces behavior and humanistic psychology specializes in the person’s capability to move in the direction as the educationalist. As the educator you’re capable of study more approximately your self in more depth than from what become previously regarded. Carl Rogers’s practices retain to broaden toward the man or woman-focused approach because it relates not simplest to humans but also to organization therapy, it’ll span various populations which include the regions of own family counseling, couple relationships, training, politics, authorities, and enterprise management (Sollod, 1978).

Cognitive Psychology
The cognitive revolution represents a diametric turn around inside the century’s vintage remedy of mind and awareness in technology, such as the contents of conscious enjoy, whose subjective traits had been being discarded as mere causal epiphenomena (Sperry 1993). This paradigm shift delivered with it opportunity ideals approximately the remaining nature of things thereby bringing forth new answers to a number of humanities private questions. The important thing assumption of cognitivism is that humans have distinctive mental states each of that may result in a one-of-a-kind reaction. The manipulation of these special states may be defined in phrases of algorithms all of which has become the defining paradigm of psychology (Sperry 1993).

One most important contribution that cognitivism had on the have a look at of psychology as a technology got here in the shape of mental theories. It back the conditioning theory in addition to comparative psychology lower back to a function where they recognized the there have been a number of qualitative variations between the mental processing of human beings and animal (Greenwood, 1999). This is because of the empirical troubles faced through the behaviorists, wherein the overvalued the capability of the conditioning concept and presumed that it enabled us to give an explanation for every shape of conduct which includes complex ones consisting of language in human and animals. (Greenwood, 1999).

Prior to the cognitive revolution, most behaviorists allowed theoretical phrases to be added into their study only if they have been preferably, rigidly and exhaustively described through legal guidelines relating stimulus inputs to inner states and internal states to behavioral outputs. Such theories had been observed to be missing, and alternatively inadequate. This is because if the intervening variables are carefully and exhaustively described in terms of empirical laws, they cannot feature as important causes of empirical legal guidelines or be creatively advanced to generate novel empirical predictions (Greenwood, 1999).

Consequently, which will generate a considerable scientific rationalization and also the capability for similarly development, an idea or hypothetical assemble must have “surplus which means” that is often created via the exploitation of theoretical fashions and analogies. This allows for scientists to introduce meaningful descriptions of inter-subjectivity of unobservable phenomena, by using exploiting through analogy and metaphor the semantics of our descriptions of houses of acquainted and discriminable systems (Greenwood, 1999).

This allowed for scientists to introduce meaningful theoretical descriptions which include “electric fee” (an analogy of a charge of gunpowder). This idea became then prolonged to theories in cognitive psychology a lot of which postulate representational states such memories and beliefs. An example of this could be visible inside the computational idea of hassle fixing by Alan Newell, Clifford Shaw and Herbert Siman (1958) wherein all of them they provided become a hard and fast of behavioral predictions derived from their concept and a manner to assess them empirically. Neither the policies of the sentential calculus hired inside the derivation of theorems nor the axioms of common sense described by way of the theory have been operationally defined (Greenwood, 1999).

A complaint to that is that over the years in cognitive literature, theoretical definitions of phrases such as cognitive heuristics, inference, lengthy and short time period reminiscence e.t.c. had been circulated. Although this could be the case, the operational definitions as opposed to distinct operational measures of these phenomena were in reality nonexistent.

The revolution additionally caused the rejection of the behaviorist restrict of the subject depend of psychology to observable human behaviors as they had been simply as interested by the explanation of cognitive processing as they have been with the reason of observable conduct. Therefore, this had an effect at the improvement of the mastering view due to the fact cognitivists couldn’t be given that behavior became solely inspired through the surroundings leading to some of research. Their cognizance on observable conduct has been on the premise that behavior can be seen as a means of assessing theories of human and animal cognitive processing. This extremely may be seen as a go back to the sins of behaviorism which was subjectivism (Overskeid, 2008).

In essence, the cognitive approach lays more emphasis on practical models and information processing and little or no on shape. This thereby constitutes any other distinction among cognitivism and behaviorism as the latter are less inquisitive about the technique among the stimuli and response. Bandura (1965) finished a take a look at in which he showed that an instantaneous stimulus isn’t always wished in order to get a response. Bandura divided a group of youngsters into organizations and made them watch a quick video wherein a person changed into beating up a doll. At the stop of the video one organization saw the man’s movements being rewarded and the alternative institution saw the person being punished for his actions. The effects showed that more of the kids who witnessed the person being rewarded engaged in that equal conduct than the children from the opposite organization. This indicates that direct revel in of movements doesn’t always bring about an exchange in behavior subsequently a greater emphasis turned into put on the thoughts (Overskeid, 2008).

Any other contribution may be seen in the region of treatments in medical psychology which use the hassle resolution technique and also the amendment of attributions and ideals. This entails behavior amendment which is finished thru cognitive restructuring. In this situation the therapist tries to exchange the wondering and reasoning techniques of the client. Rational-emotive therapy is another remedy which advantages from the cognitive method, and is based on the basis that people cognitively interpret the sector around them continuously; those interpretations can purpose internal struggle or turmoil. For example, a man or woman that thinks that they may be ready in the whole lot they do will suffer stress when they are incompetent in some thing. Therefore, the goal of the therapist is to reveal the unrealistic purpose they’ve set for themselves and manual them to a greater practical purpose.

Robinson, Gosling ; Craik (1999) achieved a study wherein they determined that cognitive psychology has come to be one of the outstanding faculties of psychology, surpassing even behavioral psychology. This is because of the amazing impact of the development and use of computers. This supplied scientists with a brand new metaphor for conceptualizing how the thoughts works, one which changed into based totally on records processing and related ideas of storage. This paved the way for the development of recent methods for measuring intellectual approaches including the surprisingly controlled presentation of visible and auditory stimuli (Robins et al, 1999) a chief critic of the cognitive revolution is that although it is outstanding faculty of psychology, the cognitive psychology in practice has had a research awareness too slim to allow a complete knowledge of even phenomena normally regarded as primary components of the subject’s problem count number. As know-how has persisted to grow in psychology and neuroscience, this narrow consciousness has turn out to be increasingly clean (Robins et al, 1999).

An instance of this could be found in the take a look at of desire. The act of choosing is the maximum critical element of techniques, which includes reasoning, choice making, and hassle solving, which might be central to cognitive psychology. To date, there are nevertheless issues important to the knowledge of human desire that has by no means been critically pursued via cognitive psychologists (Robins et al, 1999).

Additionally, the revolution helped in lifting the veil on the discussion of animal cognition thereby main to a boom in studies regarding animal cognition. It’s been argued that the contribution to modern advances in getting to know and commands is because of the method used in cognitive psychology, instead of its original epistemology and implicit concept of gaining knowledge of. It is due to those cognitive mental research as well as cognitive venture evaluation that has made it feasible to be a great deal more particular than ever approximately the outline of mental processes that underlie wise overall performance main to what’s known as an implemented science of learning (Vosniadou, 1996).

The analogy of the thoughts as a laptop software furnished the basis for cognitive psychology’s new epistemology. This become the mathematical concept of computability that lies behind the computer, presenting a brand new form of reason for mental phenomena.

In school, the revolution has brought about the development of a very a great deal extra specified account of the outline of mental representations and approaches that underlie expert performance (Vosniadou, 1996).

In conclusion, the cognitive revolution has caused the development of wealthy distinct descriptions of the mental representations and processes that underlie overall performance in lots of faculty-associated situation count regions, making it feasible to be lots extra particular than before in our descriptions of the effects of mastering. Previous to the cognitive revolution, behaviorist theories did not represent real and important mental theories. The behaviorist mistakes become to confuse the reasonable requirement for operational degree of postulated theoretical states and methods with the abnormal perception that the which means of theoretical descriptions should be laid out in terms of such operational measures. This caused the medical growth of cognitive theories which served as a template for all different psychological theories, thereby bringing with it a brand new methodology for the look at of psychology.

Question Section
The psychological investigation of religion in the United States shows pressures and openings that exist amongst psychology and religion. It likewise exhibits the multifaceted perspectives taken by psychologists as they address ranges of living that have individual ramifications. Taking after the early period, American psychology’s push toward behaviorism brought about the disregard of otherworldly matters. The reductionism techniques for behaviorism pretty much ruled out matters of confidence, or for some other hypothetical builds that were not measured straightforwardly. Thus, psychology left religion for other theme that were thought to be more logical and a very long while of disregard followed. Psychologist’ enthusiasm for religion continued in the 1950’s. Gordon Allport’s (1950) endeavor to portray the part of religion as far as individuals can tell started his permanent stamp on the field, and right up ’til today his Intrinsic-Extrinsic qualification in religious inspiration remains the most powerful approach in psychological investigations of religion in the United States. In the years from that point forward, a few advancements have consolidated to propose, as indicated by the conventional perspective of psychology of religion, that the fields is encountering a resurgence of intrigue. These incorporate the foundation of expert diaries giving an outlet to psychological investigation of religion, and the evidently expanding accessibility of school classes concentrating on psychology of religion.
Psychologists who contemplate religion, notwithstanding, address ” a question whose reality can be gotten just in the condition of confidence” (p.32). the demonstration of conviction is basic to religious information and experience. In psychology, distrust is a persevering worth, however in religion it is a middle of the road venture on the pathway to conviction. This sets up a strain amongst psychology and religion, which brings about psychologists having low rates of religious action, when contrasted with other logical and scholarly gatherings (Richards and Bergin, 1997). The techniques and presumptions supported by psychology have seemed, by all accounts, to be contradictory with the more subjective and experiential strategies for religion in spite of late endeavors to orchestrate the two (Richards and Bergin, 1997).
Ralph Hood (1998), a noteworthy figure in American psychology of religion, recommends six psychological schools of thought with respect to religion. The psychoanalytical schools draw from the work of Freud, and endeavor to uncover oblivious thought processes in religious conviction. Despite the fact that Freud decreased religious conviction to a characteristic, if at last defective, endeavor to adapt to life’s burdens; contemporary psychoanalytic elucidations are not really unfriendly to religious confidence. Systematic schools discover their motivation in Jung’s portrayal of otherworldly life. Most psychologists, nonetheless, view such depictions as undemonstrated by logical research, and along these lines it assumes a constrained part in psychology. Question relations school additionally draws from therapy, yet concentrate their endeavors on maternal impacts on the kid. Each of these three schools depend on clinical contextual analyses and other elucidating strategies in light of little specimens, which runs counter to the predominant routine with regards to psychology in America. Transpersonal school’s endeavors to stand up to profoundly straightforwardly, frequently with the supposition that otherworldly marvels are genuine. They use an assortment of techniques trying to concentrate extraordinary experience. Phenomenological schools concentrate on the suspicions hidden religious experience and on the commonalties of the encounters. They support depiction and basic reflection over experimentation and estimation.
Inside the estimation custom, Allport’s characteristic outward religious introduction display has molded the field for more than 30 years. Thinks about examining the relations of inherent and outward introductions to various social practices and dispositions are plentiful. The characteristic extraneous point of view fills in as the applied reason for vital reviews directed by Batson and others. Inquire about exploring the part of religion in adapting and in psychopathology additionally is normal. Premier among these is Pargament’s (1997) take a shot at the ways that individuals utilize religion to adapt to stretch. Formative psychologists have researched the likelihood of phases of religious improvement. Connection hypothesis has gotten expanding consideration around there for instance Kirkpatrick, 1992) Spilka and his understudies and others have connected Cognitive psychology to religion. Social psychological hypotheses, for example, attribution hypothesis, have been used keeping in mind the end goal to look at the conditions under which encounters are thought to be religious, or to comprehend religious change. Dread of death and its part in religious experience have been learned finally, as have the relationship amongst religion and psychotherapy. In each of these territories, the estimation schools have looked to apply customary logical philosophies of portrayal, relationship and experimentation to religious marvels. In doing this, they have shown that religion is pertinent to our comprehension of human conduct and thought.
Among research psychologist the strain in suppositions will, no doubt, proceed. As neuropsychological, developmental psychology and other sub-fields keep on advancing, the distinction between information picked up by logical and religious means will stay obvious. Psychologist intrigued by religion may address these holes by creating effective hypothesis and research. For instance, connection hypothesis can be found in wording perfect with developmental psychology. The refinement between psychology of religion, which underscores how psychology edifies our comprehension of religion, and religious psychology, accentuating religious understanding of psychology, has been a long-standing issue in the field, and it is an issue that won’t leave soon.
The psychological investigation of religion is a significant region of psychology in America. It is pertinent to our comprehension of individuals since it addresses an imperative feature of life in America, with over 90% of Americans declaring faith in God, and by far most of referring to particular religious’ inclinations (Baston, 1996). It offers a rich wellspring of material for the investigation of demeanors, adapting, and benevolence and may other marvels of general enthusiasm to psychologists. It additionally challenges the psychologist’s inventiveness to lead look into on develops that can’t without much of a stretch be considered tentatively. At a more dynamic level, the connection amongst psychology and religion helps psychology keep up its recorded association with rationality. As psychologist try to utilize the strategies of the common sciences, the psychology of religion advises us that our underlying foundations are in reasoning, and that the suspicion we make with respect to our topic have critical ramifications for our science.

In my research, I learned about some aspects of psychology that I thought I knew about, but turned up there was a lot more to consider. All of the different books I have found have helped me understand some things about myself that even I was wondering why I was feeling a certain way. It has grown my knowledge and let me gain the ability to help my family and friends in a way that they have not been helped before, which has given them a new understanding of their own feelings and thought processes and more consideration for others. Before this paper, I was unaware of the timeline of history involved in these types of psychology. I understood that there was basic psychology and its branches, but what I for some reason was not realizing, was that it took much time to discover just how many different types and factors there was.

To sum up this research paper, Humanistic Psychology makes a specialty of the man or woman’s capability to act as an entire person in a nurturing surroundings by using desire with receiving a superb manner of life, while the cognitive revolution has caused the development of wealthy distinct descriptions of the mental representations and processes that underlie overall performance in lots of faculty-associated situation count regions, making it feasible to be lots extra particular than before in our descriptions of the effects of mastering.

Baston, C.D. (1996) You take the high road. The International Journal for the Psychology
of Religion, 6, 159-164.Bergin, A.E. (1980). Psychotherapy and religious values. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 75-105.Greenwood J.D (1999) UNDERSTANDING THE “COGNITIVE REVOLUTION” IN PSYCHOLOGY. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 35(1), 1-22.

Hood, R. W. Jr. (1999, November). American Psychology of Religion and the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 1-13.

Kirschenbaum, H., & Jourdan, A. (2005). The Current Status of Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 37-51.

Krasner, L. (1978). The future and the past in the behaviorism-humanism dialogue. AmericanPsychologist, 33(9), 799-804.

Leahey T. H (1992) The Mythical Revolutions of American Psychology. American psychologist, 47(2), 308-318
Newell, A., Shaw, J. C., & Simon, H. (1958). Elements of a theory of problem solving. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259
Overskeid, Geir. (2008, January 1). They should have thought about the consequences: the crisis of cognitivism and a second chance for behavior analysis The Free Library. (2008). Retrieved May 18, 2017
Robins R.W, Gosling S.D & Craik R.H (1999) An Empirical Analysis of Trends in Psychology. American psychologists, 54,(2), 117-147
Rogers, C. (1980). A way of being. New York, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company (pp.5- 160).

Sollod, R. (1978). Carl Rogers and the origins of client-centered therapy. Professional Psychology, 9(1), 93-104.
Sperry R. (1993) The Impact and Promise of the Cognitive Revolution. American Psychologist 48 (8) 878-885

Wulff, D. W. (1998) Rethinking the rise and fall of the psychology of religion. In A.L. Molendijk and P. Pel (Eds.), Religion in the making: The emergence of the sciences of religion, (pp.181-202).

To receive an “A” the following requirements must be met:
Student must read 250+ pages of professional resource material
Research paper must demonstrate exceptional content, comprehension, and integration of resource material
Adhere to APA format
Complete all written work on time
To receive a “B” the following requirements must be met:
Student must read 200-249 pages of professional resource material
Research paper must demonstrate very good content, comprehension, and integration of resource material
Adhere to APA format
Complete all written work on time
To receive a “C” the following requirements must be met:
Student must read 150-199 pages of professional resource material
Research paper must demonstrate good content, comprehension, and integration of resource material
Adhere to APA format
Complete all written work on time
For my research paper, I have read __274__ pages of resource material.
_____Cheyenne Tuggle__________________
NOTE: This paper must be completed and turned-in with your research paper.
Don’t forget to include a signed Academic Honesty Contract.
Your grade cannot be calculated without these items.

PSY 463 GIS Research Paper Rubric
4Clearly a knowledgeable, practiced, skilled pattern
3Evidence of a developing pattern
2Superficial, random, limited consistencies
1Unacceptable skill application
Use of Sources
Researched information appropriately documented
Enough outside information to clearly represent a research process
Demonstrates use of paraphrasing, direct, and indirect quotations
Information connects to the thesis
Incorporated all references in the main body of the paper
Abstract clearly defines thesis
Text organization flows sensibly and smoothly
Content connecting to thesis is clear and concise
Conclusion thoughtful, engaging, and clear
Demonstrated comprehension of the resource material
Running head
12 point times new roman font and appropriate margins
Employed proper grammar (e.g., punctuation, spelling)
Correct paragraphing
Consistent APA format
Information literacy
Evidence of thorough research (sources represent variety and types)
Documentation demonstrates conscientious application of citing ethics
Evidence of sorting and selecting appropriate material
Research offers non-biased, fair research perspective from which a conclusion is drawn
Research information goes beyond surface information

Total score: ________/ grade: _________
Academic honesty contract
The Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary defines plagiarism as stealing or passing off the ideas or words of another as if they were your own without crediting the source.
Plagiarism is a serious offense that carries serious consequences. In addition to plagiarism, there are other forms of academic dishonesty that a student must avoid. For example:
Falsification or fabrication – misrepresenting facts or research, verbally or in writing, for the purpose of academic gain;
Double submissions of written work without the expressed consent of the professor(s);
Cheating on tests, papers or projects, including group work on papers or projects when not expressly approved by the professor;
Facilitating academic dishonesty – allowing another student to copy from you; giving your work to another student to use as a model, or to submit as his/her own; leaving your computer or work unguarded so that it is easily accessible to another student;
Any other intentional behavior designed for unearned academic gain on the part of a student.

Paraphrasing: the AUW model
Ideas that are researched and used must be absorbed, understood, and written in the student’s own words.

Simply changing a few words does not meet the standard for academic honesty.
Choosing when to give credit
Need to document
No need to document
When you are using or referring tosomebody else’s words or ideas froma magazine, book, newspaper, song,tv program, movie, web page,computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium
When you are writing your own experiences, your own observations, your own insights, your own thoughts, your own conclusions about a subject
When you use information gainedthrough interviewing another person
When you are using “common knowledge” folklore, common sense observations, shared information within your field of study or cultural group
When you copy the exact words or a”unique phrase” from somewhere
When you are compiling generally accepted facts
When you reprint any diagrams,illustrations, charts, and pictures
when you are writing up your own experimental results
When you use ideas that others havegiven you in conversations or overemail
When is information “common knowledge”?
You find the same information undocumented in at least five different sources
You think it is information your readers will already know
You think the person could easily find the information with general reference sources
Some helpful websites:
Luther seminary:
Vaughan memorial library, acadia university:
I have read and understand the various forms of academic dishonesty as outlined in this document. In developing my research paper/project, i agree to exercise academic integrity.
Cheyenne Tuggle
This paper must be signed and attached to your
completed research project/paper


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