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Producing exact copies ensures that when a cell divides, the offspring cells will receive the same genetic information. 4. The hydrogen bonds break easily, making it easier or the two strands in the molecule to separate during replication. The strong covalent bonds ensure that the sequence of nucleotides remains fixed in each strand. STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS a, didgeridoos; b, guanine; c, adenine; d, phosphate group section 10-2 1. Mrs. carries genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the costly of a eukaryotic cell. 2. RNA is a chain of RNA nucleotides that are folded into a hairpin shape and can bind to a specific amino acid. 3. Transcription is the process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA 4. A promoter is a region of DNA that marks the beginning f the DNA chain that is to be transcribed. L. Co. Do. Ay. Be. D 1. RNA contains ribose; DNA contains didgeridoos. RNA usually contains racial in place of thymine. In eukaryote DNA is found only in the nucleus; RNA is not. 2. Mrs. is a single uncoiled chain. Tarn is a single chain folded into a hairpin shape. RNA is globular. . Information is transcribed from DNA into Mrs., which moves through the pores of the nuclear membrane into the costly. 4. The RNA sequence would be CAYUGA. 5. RNA polymerase would not recognize the termination signal and would continue to synthesize RNA until it reached the termination signal. Thus, two genes would probably be transcribed into a single piece of RNA Section 10-3 1. A cod is a combination of three Mrs. nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid. 2. Translation is the process Of assembling polypeptides from information encoded in Mrs.. 3.

An indication is a combination of three Tarn nucleotides that pairs with a specific cod. 1. A 2. Do. Be. Co. B 1 . The indication are IAC, GILA, CGI_J, and CA. (The last three nucleotides in the Mrs. sequence are a stop cod, which has no indication. ) The polypeptide will initially contain four amino acids. 2. The Tarn that pairs with the start cod on RNA carries mothering. 3. Proteins synthesized on ribosome attached to the endoplasmic reticulum are exported from the cell, whereas proteins synthesized on ribosome that are free in the costly are used inside the cell. . All of the codes from the deletion point to the end of the transcript would be shifted by one nucleotide, so the sequence of amino acids specified from that point on would be different. Translation would terminate prematurely if the shift resulted in a new stop cod before the end of the transcript. A, polypeptide or protein; b, peptide bond; c, amino acid; d, Tarn; e, indication; f, cod; g, Mrs. r transcript; h, ribosome section 11-1 1 .

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A regulator gene is a prokaryotic gene that codes for the production of a represses protein, which inhibits the transcription of one or more structural genes. 2. Binding off represses protein to an operator blocks the transcription of one or more structural genes; this blockage is called repression. 3. An inducer is a molecule that initiates prokaryotic gene transcription by removing a represses protein, a process called activation. 4. A transcription factor is a protein that facilitates gene transcription by binding to RNA polymerase and to an enhancer.


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