Mercurial Essays

Free Essays & Assignment Examples


Middle Childhood (6 to 12 Years)
1.The work of Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget point to which area as
central in psychological development during middle childhood?
a.intellectual development
b.parental identification
c.formation of a personal identity
d.development of a sense of trust
Conceptual, p. 264, A
2.From an evolutionary perspective, how might group cooperation
contribute to species survival?
a.It is part of the mating ritual.

b.It improves the group’s ability to track and hunt for food.

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c.It fosters more competition among the males for mating privileges.

d.It allows more offspring to be produced.

Conceptual, p. 264, B
3.How is attachment formation in infancy related to friendship
a.Children who are securely attached do not need friends.

b.Children who are anxiously attached make friends readily.

c.Children who are securely attached are more popular and more
comfortable in social interactions.

d.Children who are securely attached look for one best friend with whom
to share their feelings.

Conceptual, p. 265, C
4.Sally’s mother used power-assertive discipline techniques, such as
yelling and spanking when she was young and continues to do so. Today,
Sally is 8. You can expect her relationships with her peers to be
characterized by _______________________.

a.aggressive and controlling behaviors during conflicts
b.avoiding conflict at all costs
c.cooperation and mutuality
d.hostility, warmth, and honesty
Conceptual, p. 266, A
5.Which parental discipline technique is most likely to interfere with
a child’s friendship formation?
a.power assertion withdrawal
Conceptual, p. 266, A
6.One cognitive benefit of active involvement in the peer group is

a.increased egocentrism
b.increased perspective-taking skills
c.increased emotional control
d.increased hopefulness
Conceptual, p. 266, B
7.Children who are aware of the variety of perspectives that are
present in the social situation are likely to be __________. to harsh discipline by parents
b.positively evaluated by their age-mates
c.more positively evaluated by their teachers than by their peers
d.friendly with rejected and withdrawn children
Conceptual, pp. 266-267, B
8.Which of the following happens to a rejected child in the process of
social skill development?
a.The child becomes closer to siblings and extended family members.

b.The child comes to expect negative behaviors from others.

c.The child has as many opportunities as accepted children to develop
social-relations skills.

d.The child selects an activity such as sports or drama in order to
gain peer acceptance.

Conceptual, p. 267, B
9.In middle childhood, children are aware of social norms for peer
acceptance. This results in greater pressures toward

Conceptual, p. 267, C
10.Why are “best friend” relationships important in middle childhood?
a.They provide a model for relationships with authority figures.

b.They protect children from the peer group.

c.They rarely break-up.

d.They provide a context for working on relationships in which both
members have equal power, status, and access to resources.

Conceptual, p. 267, D
11.What is the difference between peer acceptance and having a “best
friend” relationship?
a.Peer acceptance requires more conformity than best friend

b.Peer acceptance allows more openness and self-disclosure than a best
friend relationship.

c.Once established, peer acceptance can never be lost whereas best
friends can break up.

d.Peer acceptance is more important to a sense of well being than
having a close friend.

Conceptual, p. 267, A, www
12.How does the school environment affect close friendships?
a.Teachers decide which children will become close friends.

b.The school curriculum emphasizes the importance of having close

c.Close friendships are more stable in schools that keep children in
the same classroom groups from grade to grade.

d.Schools that contextualize learning promote the formation of more
stable best friend relationships.

Conceptual, p. 267, C
13.Which of the following increases a child’s sense of loneliness?
a.being outgoing and sociable
b.being a target of peer rejection
c.being a bully
d.being academically competent
Factual, pp. 267-268, B
14.Which of the following is a characteristic of children who have
strong feelings of loneliness?
a.They work hard to improve their social skills.

b.They view themselves as socially incompetent.

c.They rarely spend time alone.

d.Many other children like them and want to be with them.

Conceptual, p. 268, B
15.Some children who are rejected tend to be disruptive and aggressive;
others tend to be socially withdrawn. Which of the following
statements is more characteristic of the aggressive/disruptive
children than the socially withdrawn group?
a.They tend to experience difficulty dealing with stress.

b.They tend to display inappropriate affect and unusual behavioral

c.They are more likely to benefit from organized sports programs.

d.They are more likely to attribute hostile intentions to others.

Conceptual, p. 268, D
16.Both aggressive and withdrawn rejected children tend to

a.have multiple problems out adults for companions interpersonally reserved
d.overcome rejection by the end of elementary school
Conceptual, p. 268, A
17.Which emotion is most characteristic of withdrawn children?
a.disdain for peers
Conceptual, p. 268, B
18.Which of the following statements is correct?
a.Aggressiveness is a highly valued characteristic for girls that
promotes peer acceptance.

b.Aggressiveness is a characteristic of the withdrawn-rejected

c.Children with special needs problems are more likely to be accepted
if they are aggressive.

d.In some school environments, aggressiveness contributes to popularity
and closeness among boys.

Factual, p. 268, D
19.Which of the following groups is most likely to develop serious
mental health problems in adolescence or adulthood?
a.aggressive-rejected children
b.aggressive children
c.aggressive-withdrawn children
d.withdrawn children
Factual, p. 268, C, www
20.Tyrone has serious mental health problems as a teenager. It could be
that he was part of which one of the following groups during middle
a.aggressive-rejected children
b.aggressive-withdrawn children
c.aggressive children
d.withdrawn children
Factual, p. 268, B
21.What is a common characteristic of children who are victims of
a.When attacked, they do not retaliate.

b.They have a strong need for power and control.

c.They are aggressive toward authority figures.

d.None of these.

Factual, p. 269, A
22.Rameul is often mean to younger children at school, taunting,
teasing, and pushing them. However when an older boy taunts, teases,
and pushes Rameul, he rarely retaliates. It is most likely that Ramuel
is a(n) ________.

b.aggressive-rejected child
c.child abused at home
d.physically immature
Conceptual, p. 269, A
23.Through ___________, children begin to appreciate the logic, order,
and predictability of the physical world.

a.sensorimotor intelligence
b.concrete operational thinking
c.preoperational thinking
d.fantasy play
Conceptual, pp. 268-270, B
24.According to Piaget’s Theory, an action or transformation that is
carried out in thought rather than in action is called

a.a formal transformation
b.fantasy thinking
c.a mental operation
d.a cerebral manipulation
Conceptual, p. 269, C
25.Why does Piaget use the term “concrete” to describe the quality of
thinking that is characteristic of middle childhood?
a.Children can only reason about inanimate objects at this stage.

b.His father was a stoneworker and this term was invented out of
respect for his father.

c.The term highlights the focus on real objects rather than
hypothetical situations and relationships.

d.The term reflects Piaget’s concerns about the intellectual rigidity
and vulnerability of middle childhood.

Conceptual, pp. 268-269, C
26.When a child understands that physical matter does not change in
quantity despite changes in form or container, she should be able to
do which of the following types of problems?
a.a conservation problem
b.a classification problem
c.a categorization problem arithmetic problem
Conceptual, p. 271, A, www
27.Which of the following is NOT one of the concepts that a child
must understand in order to solve a conservation problem?
Conceptual, pp. 271-272, B
28.When a child understands that even though you change the shape of a
piece of clay you still have the same clay, we say that the child
understands _________________.

Conceptual, p. 271, D
29.When a child can simultaneously manipulate two dimensions in his
mind, such as circumference and thickness, so that he understands that
a change in one dimension is compensated for by a change in the other,
he understands ___________________.

Conceptual, pp. 270-271, A
30.What are the findings of studies that have tried to teach young
children (under age 6) to conserve?
a.Children under age 6 are not able to use the principles necessary to
solve conservation problems.

b.Children under age 6 can be taught the concept of conservation with
clay, but they do not transfer this concept to other materials.

c.With special training children as young as 4 years old can learn
conservation principles and apply them across materials.

d.Children under age 6 are just as ready to solve conservation problems
as older children.

Conceptual, p. 271, C
31.Children appear to be working on two aspects of problem solving at
once: 1) the logical or symbolic features of the problem; and 2) the
social meaning of the problem solving situation. This dual process is
referred to as the ___________________. construction of meaning
b.conservation of substance
c.classification hierarchy
d.feeling of knowing
Conceptual, p. 271, A
32.The ability to group objects according to some dimension they share
is called ____________.

Definition, p. 272, D
33.Estephan likes to group his Matchbox cars in different
categories. Sometimes he sorts them by color, other times by model,
and other times, by the size of the car. Estephan is showing what
Definition, p. 272, C
34.The two components of classification are categorization and

Conceptual, pp. 272-273, C
35.The ability to order subgroups in a hierarchy is an ability related
to __________________.

b.combinatorial skills
d.object permanence
Conceptual, p. 272, C
36.The investigator showed a card to a child and asked: “Are there more
radishes or more vegetables in this picture?” What is the investigator
likely to be studying?
b.combinatorial skills
c.identity equivalence
d.classification skills
Conceptual, pp. 272-273, D, www
37.Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are all

a.combinatorial skills
b.examples of reciprocity
c.classification skills
d.none of these
Conceptual, p. 273, A
38.Meredith practices her math skills using flash cards with her father.

Meredith is showing what type of skill?
d.none of these
Conceptual, p. 273, C
39.Combinatorial skills like addition and subtraction require which of
the following?
a.class inclusion
b.conservation of number
c.formal operations
d.hypothetical reasoning
Conceptual, p. 273, B
40.Billy is 4 years old. He has a big box of Leggos, and his
mother asks him to give her 5 Leggos from the box. He has trouble
deciding how many to give her so he takes a handful and says, “Here,
it’s five.” What is Billy’s problem with this task?
a.4-year-olds cannot count to 5.

b.4-year-olds do not have a scheme for conservation of numbers.

c.4-year-olds are obstinate.

d.4-year-olds do not want to be tested by their mothers.

Application, p. 273, B
41.Monitoring how well you understand something and taking steps to
understand it better is called __________.

Conceptual, p. 274, D
42.Metacognition means _________________.

a.knowing about knowing
b.shared meaning between two or more people
c.grammar and syntax
d.conservation of space
Definition, p. 274, A
43.Milly is thinking about why she is feeling sad and disappointed.

This kind of thinking is called ________.

b.psychological mindedness
Application, p. 274, B
44.What is one academic benefit of metacognition?
a.It helps guide actions to improve understanding.

b.It supports fantasy play.

c.It encourages a competitive outlook for problem solving.

d.It helps children form more secure attachments.

Conceptual, p. 274, A
45.Why are skills the basis of intellectual competence?
a.They can be taught.

b.There are wide individual differences in skill levels.

c.They combine knowledge and practice for solving meaningful problems.

d.The same set of skills are valued across cultures and historical

Conceptual, p. 274, C
46.One of the most critical intellectual skills that is developed and
elaborated during middle childhood is ______.

c.forming scientific hypotheses
d.synthesizing information from multiple sources
Conceptual, p. 276, B, www
47.What is the relationship between a child’s placement in a reading
level grouping and that child’s progress in learning how to read?
a.The lower the level of the group, the more progress the child makes
in learning how to read.

b.The higher the level of the group, the less progress the child makes
in learning to read.

c.Children make equal progress at all levels.

d.The higher the level of the group, the more progress they make in
learning to read.

Conceptual, p. 277, D
48.Intelligence can be defined as ____________.

a.the ability to solve difficult problems
b.the ability to detect logical relationships among objects
c.the ability to understand one’s own internal feelings
d.All of these.

Conceptual, p. 275, D
49.According to Robert Sternberg, there are three kinds of intelligence.

However, tests of intelligence typically only assess one of these.

Which one is that?
a.creative intelligence
b.analytic intelligence
c.practical intelligence
d.interpersonal intelligence
Factual, p. 275, B
50.Which of the following is considered a feature of complex skilled
a.Complex skilled behavior relies primarily on sensory/perceptual

b.Skilled behaviors are acquired in a strict order from simple to more

c.Skilled behaviors rely on memorization rather than adaptive

d.The limits of the human system place constraints on a child’s ability
to perform skilled behaviors.

Conceptual, pp. 274-275, D
51.Which of the following is an example of a sociocultural factor that
contributes to the superior mathematical skill development of Japanese
and Chinese children?
a.Japanese and Chinese parents expect their schools to do a better job
and put pressure on educators to improve the quality of education.

b.Japanese and Chinese parents emphasize natural ability over effort.

c.Japanese and Chinese children have a genetically superior capacity
for mathematical problem solving.

d.Japanese and Chinese children have more fun studying for mathematics.

Conceptual, p. 278, A, www
52.What new aspect of the self-concept influences a child’s enthusiasm
for reading?
a.The child thinks of himself/herself as a first grader.

b.The child thinks of himself/herself as someone who can read.

c.The child thinks of himself/herself as loved and valued.

d.The child thinks of himself/herself as someone who can ride a two-
wheeled bicycle.

Conceptual, p. 277, C
53.How might the cultural context influence a child’s ability to read?
a.Children in all cultures are able to read at a third-grade level by
age 10.

b.All cultures value reading as a useful tool in daily life.

c.Some cultures consider reading to be of little use and too difficult
for children.

d.Reading is a universal skill, not influenced by cultural context.

Conceptual, p. 277, C
54.Which of the following is the best definition of self-evaluation?
a.Children develop ways of knowing about knowing.

b.Children identify role expectations.

c.Children feel optimistic about their ability to succeed.

d.Children compare their achievements to both internal and external
standards for performance.

Definition, pp. 277-278, D
55.Self-evaluation takes place in two contexts. What are they?
a.internal and psychological frames of reference
b.external and social frames of reference
c.internal and external frames of reference
d.psychological and social frames of reference
Conceptual, p. 280, C
56.Thomas knows he is good at baseball, but not so good at soccer. This
is an example of what?
a.internal frames of reference
b.external frames of reference
c.internal and external frames of reference
d.psychological and social frames of reference
Application, p. 280, A
57.Thomas knows he is good at baseball because he can hit the ball
further then any of his teammates. This is an example of what?
a.internal frames of reference
b.external frames of reference
c.internal and external frames of reference
d.psychological and social frames of reference
Application, p. 280 B
58.During middle childhood, self-evaluation is strongly influenced by

a.combinational skills
b.comparisons with the performance of peers in one’s parents as economic providers
d.the ability to maintain emotional control
Conceptual, pp. 280, B
59.A person’s sense of confidence that he or she can perform behaviors
in a specific situation is called ________.

b.effortful control
c.conservation of proximal development
Definition, p. 280, A
60.Bandura suggests that there are four sources of information that
contribute to judgments of self-efficacy. Which of the following is
one of these?
a.past performance in the specific area of mastery
b.practical intelligence
d.combinatorial skills
Conceptual, p. 280, A
61.Tally, an 8-year-old, watches Claire climb the rock wall. Tally
had been scared to try it until she saw Claire do it. This is an
example of how Tally’s self efficacy can be raised through

a.enactive attainments
b.vicarious experiences
c.verbal persuasion
d.physical state
Application, p. 280, A
62.Aguar was very excited about jumping of the diving board while
Penelope was fearful and anxious. Who is more likely to perceive
themselves as able to jump off of the diving board?
c.Aguar and Penelope are both as likely to jump off of the board.

d.Neither are likely to jump.

Application, p. 280, A
62.Which of the following helps establish a sense of self-efficacy in a
specific area?
a.prior successes in other areas
b.encouragement from friends and teachers
c.prior failures in that area
d.hopes for success in life
Conceptual, p. 280, B
63.What is an example of a vicarious experience that contributes to the
sense of self-efficacy?
a.succeeding at a similar task in the past
b.having a teacher or coach tell you that you can succeed
c.watching someone else, who is like you, succeed
d.remaining calm as you approach the situation
Conceptual, p. 281, C
64.How is a sense of self-efficacy related to persistence?
a.Children who have a positive sense of self-efficacy give up after
they fail.

b.Children who have a low sense of self-efficacy try harder after they

c.Children who fail often are more likely to believe the encouragement
offered by others.

d.Children who have a low sense of self-efficacy are likely to give up
after a failure experience.

Conceptual, p. 280-281, D
65.False or inaccurate beliefs can produce a reality that corresponds
with these beliefs. What is this called?
c.self-fulfilling prophecy
d.academic competence
Definition, p. 282, C
66.What might make a child especially vulnerable to believing the false
expectations of others and thereby expecting less from themselves?
a.learning a new skill or learning something for the first time
b.being experienced in an area or being highly skilled
c.being indifferent to the social expectations of others
d.having many sources of information about one’s abilities and
Conceptual, p. 281, A, www
67.When teachers believe that a child is bright but does not try very
hard, the teacher’s reaction to the child is most likely one of

Conceptual, p. 281, B
68.Under what combination of student ability and student effort is the
teacher most likely to take a sense of personal responsibility?
a.child is bright but doesn’t try hard
b.child is a behavior problem
c.child has low ability but doesn’t try
d.child has low ability and tries hard
Conceptual, p. 281, D
69.Nathan’s school records are passed from teacher to teacher each year.

Every year his new teacher reads the same comments Nathan is
intelligent but lazy. At the end of the year that new teacher writes
the same summary statement and passes it on to the next teacher in the
subsequent grade. This could be an example of

c.self-fulfilling prophecy
d.academic competence
Definition, p. 282, C
70.__________________________ children are more aware of the emotional
and nonverbal behavior of others and make more use of social
information to evaluate and regulate their own behavior.

a.High self-monitoring
b.Low self-monitoring
c.High self-esteem
d.Low self-esteem
Factual, p. 283, A
71.Chris likes to burp loudly, and he does note care if people think it
is gross. He just likes the sound of it and hopes that someday he can
burp the entire alphabet in a row. Chris has ______________________.

a.high self-monitoring
b.low self-monitoring
c.high self-esteem
d.low self-esteem
Application, p. 283, B
72.Some children who perform well on standardized tests perceive
themselves to be below average
in academic ability. Why is this?
a.These children think their parents have a low opinion of their

b.These children have been praised too much by parents so they have no
realistic standard by which to judge their abilities.

c.These children are good test takers, but they don’t perform well in

d.These children feel guilty about being so smart.

Conceptual, p. 282, A
73.Parents’ stereotypes about which gender is more talented in a
particular area such as math, English, or sports, influence

a.their child’s confidence about being able to perform well in this
b.their own involvement in school activities
c.their discipline strategies
d.their confidence in their ability to save for their child’s college
Conceptual, pp. 281-282, A
74.Which of the following best captures the idea of an illusion of
a.Children want to be smart but no one will help them.

b.Children are smart but feel worthless.

c.Children have such low ability they can’t distinguish correct and
incorrect responses.

d.Children want to be rewarded for trying hard even if they don’t do

Definition, p. 283, C
75.What parenting style is characteristic of fathers whose children have
an illusion of incompetence?
a.The fathers are emotional and expressive.

b.The fathers are critical and unsupportive.

c.The fathers set standards that are too easily attained.

d.The fathers use love withdrawal as a discipline technique.

Conceptual, p. 282, B
76.Which of the following is one of the three significant areas of
learning that occurs as a result of team sports?
a.friendship formation
b.the principle of division of labor
c.formation of group identity
d.development of classification skills
Conceptual, pp. 283-285, B
77.Team sports emphasize which of the following concepts?
a.the win-win approach to conflict resolution
b.conservation of volume
c.interdependence of team members
d.empathy with the victim
Conceptual, p. 285, C
78.Children who participate in team sports learn that each position has
a unique function and that the team has the best chance of winning if
each player performs the functions of their position. This is called

b.division of labor attitudes
d.out-group attitudes
Conceptual, p. 285, B
79.In team sports, when one team wins, the other team loses. This
results in the creation of which of the following? and out-group antagonism
b.a sense of compassion for the members of the other team
c.a division of labor among team members
d.a willingness to learn the rules of the game
Conceptual, p. 285, A
80.Which of the following is an example of an in-group attitude
fostered through experiences in team play?
a.The other team is the enemy.

b.Assisting the other team is unethical.

c.It may be necessary to relinquish personal goals for team goals.

d.One must try as hard as possible to beat the other team.

Conceptual, p. 285, C, www
81.Which of the following is an example of an out-group attitude
fostered through experiences in team play?
a.One must relinquish personal goals for team goals when necessary.

b.Team victories bring personal satisfaction.

c.Team members are dependent on one another for success.

d.Assisting the other team is unethical.

Conceptual, pp. 285-287, D
82.According to psychosocial theory, a person’s fundamental attitude
toward ______ is established during middle childhood.
Conceptual, p. 288, A
83.Which of the following is the psychosocial crisis of middle
a.autonomy versus shame and doubt
b.industry versus inferiority
c.initiative versus guilt
d.intimacy versus isolation
Conceptual, pp. 288-289, B, www
84.Feelings of worthlessness and inadequacy in middle childhood come
from which two sources?
a.ego and id
b.self-efficacy and self-evaluation
c.the self and the social environment
d.self-esteem and skill development
Conceptual, pp. 276-280, C
85.Children discover that they cannot master every skill they attempt.

This contributes to feelings of _________.

Conceptual, pp. 289, A
86.Children who show evidence of learned helplessness believe

a.they can control every aspect of their lives
b.they are much better than their performance might suggest
c.they will succeed if they try harder
d.the outcome of most situations is beyond their control
Conceptual, p. 289, D
87.Erin, says, “I can’t do it” and her father, Bruce, says “Try
harder”. Erin then replies, “It does not matter how hard I try I will
never be good at it like Timmy.” This could be an example of

a.learned helplessness
b.high self-efficacy
d.none of these
Application, p. 289, A
88.Marcus has a first-grade reading ability even though he is in fourth
grade. His reading ability is not reflective of his measured IQ which
is about 105. What is a likely explanation for Marcus’s difficulty?
a.Marcus has a motor skill disorder.

b.Marcus has a communication disorder.

c.Marcus has a learning disorder.

d.None of these.

Application, p. 290, C
89.Children who have difficulty acquiring new vocabulary, oversimplify
grammatical expressions, and have problems understanding certain
expressions of others are likely to have which of the following?
a.learning disorder
b.motor skills disorder
c.organ inferiority
d.communication disorder
Definition, p. 290, D
90.Which of the following would NOT be an accurate statement about
education in contemporary society?
a.Schools bear the primary responsibility for education.

b.School experiences play a critical role in the development of a
personal sense of industry.

c.An important goal of education is to help children acquire the basic
tools of learning.

d.Schools can serve the educational function without the active
involvement of family members.

Conceptual, p. 291, D
91.Which of the following is an important function of education?
a.helping children understand that even if they work hard they may not
be successful
b.helping students gain the language of concepts, theories, and
relationships that will allow them to organize experience
c.teaching children that there is generally one way to do things well
and providing the method for them to do this
d.none of these
Conceptual, pp. 291-292, B
92.What is the goal of contextualization of the learning process? teach children about the environment provide a successful educational environment for all children enhance performance by the bright children teach conservation, classification, and categorization skills
Conceptual, p. 292, B, www
93.To contextualize instruction is to carry out instruction in ways that
draw upon ______________.

a.a child’s existing experiences, previous knowledge, and concepts
b.a teacher’s past experiences and philosophy of life
c.fundamental values that are independent of students’ and teachers’
d.the resources of the school context and an understanding of the
school as a system
Conceptual, p. 292, A
94.Contextualization of learning may be necessary in order to
provide a successful learning environment for which of the following?
a.dyslexic students
b.hyperactive students
c.students with attention deficit disorders
d.students from alienated groups
Conceptual, p. 292, D
95.A student who believes in her ability to approach a new situation and
“get the job done” demonstrates ______.

Conceptual, pp. 293. B
96.The tendency to strive toward higher and higher levels of mastery is
sometimes referred to as __________.

b.competence motivation
c.concrete operational thought
Definition, p. 293, B
97.Children with a sense of inertia _____________________. not believe they can master the challenges they face
b.believe they can master the challenges they face great empathy for their peers
d.cannot experience empathy
Conceptual, p. 294, A
98.Which of the following statements is considered a consequence of
today’s increased exposure to violence for children?
a.Fewer friendships are formed among children.

b.Children may suffer from symptoms similar to post traumatic stress

c.Children do not trust anyone in authority.

d.More children are overweight.

Conceptual, p. 296, B
99.Children who live in violent neighbors often suffer from other
cumulative risks including ___________.

a.illegal drug trade
d.all of these
Factual, p. 296, D
100. One of the strategies for preventing and reducing violence in
neighborhoods and schools mentioned in the text is____________.

a.treating all juvenile law breakers as adults
b.increasing police presence in all the nation’s homes and schools
c.making parents responsible for all crimes committed by their underage
d.educating parents and teachers about socialization practices that
help develop self-control, empathy, and perspective-taking
Conceptual, pp. 297-298, D
1.In which theory is middle childhood referred to as latency?
a.psychosocial theory
b. cognitive developmental theory
c. psychoanalytic theory
d. social learning theory
Factual, p. 264, C
2.Theories about development during middle childhood tend to emphasize

b. parent-child conflict
c.intellectual growth
d.emotional changes
Conceptual, p. 264, C
3.Peer interaction helps reduce _____________________.

Conceptual, pp. 266-267, B
4.One cognitive benefit of active involvement in the peer group is

a. increased egocentrism
b. increased perspective-taking skills
c. increased emotional expressiveness
d. increased hopefulness
Conceptual, p. 267, B
5.Peer relations differ from parent-child relations in which of the
following ways?
a.peers never have conflicts about power, but parents and children do
b. peers are more equal in power than parents and children
c.peers have more power over one another than parents have over their
d.peers have more resources than parents
Conceptual, pp. 266-267, B
6.Which three concepts are central to the capacity to conserve?
a.volume, space, relativity
b.operation, classification, reciprocity
c.identity, reversibility, reciprocity
d.classification, reversibility, ordering
Factual, pp. 271-272, C
7.Classification skills require which ability?
a.ordering subgroups in a hierarchy
b. conserving volume
c.manipulating numbers
d.taking another person’s point of view
Conceptual, pp. 273-274, A
8.Which statement about the development of complex behavioral skills is
a. Simple and complex components of skilled behavior are worked on at the
same time.

b. Children must learn skills in a sequence from the simplest components
to the more complex.

c. Skill learning is largely motoric rather than perceptual, cognitive,
or social.

d. Children of the middle-school-age years are likely to develop skills
in only one or two areas.

Conceptual, pp. 274-277, A
9.Which of the following statements about reading achievement is most
a.Reading is a trial and error process that does not involve the use of

b.All children learn to read in the same manner.

c.One of the most important activities that promotes reading achievement
is reading.

d.Parents have little influence on their child’s reading achievement.

Conceptual, pp. 277-278, C
10. Which of the following is a source of information upon which judgments
of self-efficacy are based?
a.grade in school
b.enactive attainments
Conceptual, pp. 280-281, B
11. Children who doubt that they have the ability to succeed in a task are
more likely to___________.

a.give up
b. learn new skills more difficult challenges
d.try harder
Conceptual, pp. 280-281, A
12. Which of the following is likely to occur if a teacher has low
expectations for a child’s performance?
a.The child will perform less well than if the teacher had higher

b.The child’s performance will not be related to the teacher’s

c.The child will do better to prove the teacher wrong.

d.The teacher will feel frustrated by the child’s failure.

Conceptual, pp.282-283, A
13. How do social expectations influence a child’s self-evaluation? expectations influence a child’s categorization skills expectations create areas of talent
c. social expectations foster out-group attitudes expectations influence a child’s confidence about success or
Conceptual, pp. 281-284, D
14. Which of the following is one of the three significant characteristics
of team sports emphasized in the text?
a. friendship formation
b. the principle of division of labor
c. formation of group identity
d. development of classification skills
Conceptual, pp. 285-286, B
15. Which of the following is an example of an in-group attitude fostered
through experiences in team play?
a. One must always place personal goals ahead of team goals.

b. Team victories can never overshadow personal failures.

c. Team members are dependent on one another for success.

d. Assisting the other team is unethical.

Conceptual, pp. 287-288, D
16. What is the psychosocial crisis of middle childhood?
a.initiative versus guilt versus mistrust
c.autonomy versus shame and doubt
d.industry versus inferiority
Conceptual, p. 288, D
17. Psychosocial theory states one’s basic attitudes toward _____________
are formed during the middlechildhood period.

a.authority figures
Conceptual, pp. 288-289, B
18. Cultures devise ways of passing on the wisdom and skills of past
generations to its children through________.

c.perspective taking
d.division of labor
Conceptual, p. 291, B
19. What does the term “contextualizing instruction” mean?
a.Grading the brightest children and teaching the lower ability children
on a pass-fail basis.

b.Creating a classroom environment that recognizes and builds upon
children’s prior experiences and
previous knowledge.

c.Creating a system of contracts in each subject.

d.Insisting that all children adapt to the same school culture.

Conceptual, pp. 292-293, B
20. A public health perspective on strategies to prevent violence focuses
on ____________.

a.controlling aggressive children
b.a collaboration in identifying various layers of prevention
c.the criminal justice definitions and strategies for deterrence
d.first controlling the television programs geared toward children
Conceptual, pp. 297-298, B
1.Match each concept that contributes to the capacity for conservation
with the example. (pp. 270-272)
1.(c) One glass of water is tall and thin, the other is short
and wide, so there is the same amount of water in both

2.(b) You can pour the water back into the tall thin glass, and
it will be the same.

3.(a) It is the same water, it is just in a different glass.

2.Match the terms and their definitions. (pp. 270-274)
c.combinatorial skills
1.(b) the ability to group objects according to some shared
characteristic and to order groups
2.(d) processes and strategies used to assess and monitor what
is known
3.(a) the concept that physical matter does not appear,
disappear, or change in quantity,
volume, or mass despite changes in shape, form, or
4.(c) the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication,
and division
3.Match each theorist and a statement that best describes their theory
of intelligence. (p. 276)
a.Howard Gardner
b.Jean Piaget
c.Charles Spearman
d.Robert Sternberg
Theory of Intelligence
1.(c) Intelligence can be viewed as one underlying factor, g.

2.(a) Intelligence includes at least 8 distinct capacities for
solving important meaningful

3.(d) There are three kinds of intelligence: analytic,
creative, and practical.

4.(b) Intelligence emerges in a developmental fashion through
four stages beginning with
sensorimotor intelligence and ending in formal operational

4.Match the student characteristics and the most common teacher
reactions. (pp. 282)
Student Characteristics
a.bright student who doesn’t try
b.not so bright student who tries hard and succeeds
c.not so bright student who tries hard and fails
Teacher Reactions
1.(a) angry
2.(c) guilty
3.(b) proud
1.Give three examples of how the family environment, especially
parental behavior, can influence a child’s social relations? (pp. 283)
. parents as role models
. parents’ discipline strategies
. parents’ attempt to control the child’s social behavior
2.What are 3 factors that contribute to best friend relationships?
(p. 267)
. attractiveness
. intelligence
. classroom social status
. commitment to the best friend
. being in the same classroom group over time
3.What are three factors that can increase a child’s experiences of
loneliness? (p. 268)
. Children are withdrawn and prefer to be alone.

. Children have trouble forming close friendships.

. Children experience peer rejection.

. Children blame themselves for their lack of social acceptance.

. Children perceive themselves as socially incompetent.

4.What are 3 characteristics of bullies? (p. 269)
. physically stronger than their peers
. needs for power and control
. family environment is low in warmth and involvement
. low sense of empathy
. aggressive toward authority figures
. find some reinforcement for their bullying behavior
5.Name the three primary achievements of the period of concrete
operational thought. Give an example of each. (pp. 270-271)
. conservation
. classification
. combinatorial skills
. Examples will vary
6.Give three examples of ways that parents can influence a child’s
reading achievement. (pp. 278)
. value literacy
. emphasize academic achievement
. provide reading materials in the home
. spend time reading with child
. provide opportunities for verbal interaction with child
7.Give 3 ways that the cultural context influences literacy. (p. 278-
. the level of literacy that men and women are expected to achieve
. the use that a culture has for reading
. the indicators a culture uses to assess reading competence
8.What are the four components of judgments of self-efficacy? (pp. 280-
. enactive attainment
. vicarious experience
. verbal persuasion
. physiological state
9.Define the term illusion of incompetence. (pp. 284)
. children who perform well on tests of academic achievement but
perceive themselves as below average in academic ability
10.Give two examples of in-group attitudes and two examples of out-group
attitudes that are fostered through team play.

. (see Table 9.2, p. 287)
11.Describe three dimensions of the construct of industry. (p. 288)
. cognitive – acquisition of basic skills and knowledge
. behavioral – ability to apply skills through concentration,
perseverance, and good work habits
. affective – curiosity, pride, ability to handle the emotional distress
of frustration or failure
12.What are three things a teacher would do in trying to contextualize
the learning process? (pp. 292-293)
. draw upon a child’s existing experiences, previous knowledge, and
concepts and then expand those understandings in new directions
. recognition of different forms of organization of the classroom,
including individual, private study, small group problem solving, and
large groups listening and responding to the teacher
. may require drawing upon the heroes and heroines, stories, songs, and
myths of a cultural group in order to help children feel comfortable
with more abstract concepts
. may require acknowledging different modes of expression, patterns of
social conversation, and language
. may involve bringing parents and other important community figures
into the learning process so that children are not isolated from their
significant social community
1.Compare what happens in social skill development for children who are
accepted by age-mates with social skill development for children who
are rejected by age-mates.

2.How do the friendship structures of boys and girls differ? What is
the meaning of these differences?
3.Define bullying and discuss the characteristics of bullies and their

4.Describe how the components of concrete operational thought,
especially conservation, classification, and combinatorial skills,
change the way children view the world.

5.Discuss how metacognition may contribute to the ability to resolve
the psychosocial crisis of industry vs. inferiority.

6.Describe reading as an example of skilled learning. Explain how the
process of learning to read illustrates the basic principles that
apply to the achievement of most complex behavioral skills.

7.Discuss the implications of experiences in team play for social and
intellectual development during middle childhood.

8.Discuss how the issues and processes involved in self-evaluation may
contribute to the achievement of a sense of industry in middle

9.Describe contextualization of instruction. Why would this technique
be beneficial to groups that are alienated from schooling?
10.Discuss the potential sources of feelings of inferiority in middle
childhood. Illustrate how these feelings can be produced internally as
well as being produced through social evaluation.

11.Discuss some of the ways that violence in the schools is disruptive
to the developmental tasks of middle childhood.


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